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[置顶] 窝洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类

2010-3-13 18:15:18 阅读2601 评论0 132010/03 Mar13

G.V.Black分类

龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - godsonx的博客

 

 

 考题:

哪些洞型可以出现在任何牙上?

 

答案:   Class I, Class V & Class VI   一类, 五类和六类洞

 

 

Cavity classification standardized methods of recording the need for restoration exist to facilitate communication among clinicians, researchers, and dental educators. The most commonly accepted means of classifying cavities is by the names of the surfaces involved. Cavity type is classified further based on the type of treatment and anatomical area involved. This classification, developed by Dr. G. V. Black in 1908, is designated by Roman numerals as Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV, Class V, and Class VI (this is the only category that has been added to his original classification system). Note: It is important to remember that the classification relates to location and not size of the cavity.

#  Class I cavities -> involve the pits and fissures, while all other classifications involve smooth surfaces
of the teeth.
      #  Class II cavities -> involve the proximal surfaces and occlusal surfaces of premolars and molars.
      #  Class III cavities -> involve the proximal surfaces of incisors and canines that do not involve the
incisal angle.
      #  Class IV cavities -> are located on the proximal surface of incisors and canines and do involve
the incisal angle.
      #  Class V cavities -> are on the facial or lingual surface of ail teeth and do not involve a pit or fissure.
      #  Class VI cavities -> are on the incisal edges of anterior teeth or on the occlusal cusp heights of
posterior teeth.

** Remember: The best method for definitive detection of incipient carious lesions on the interproximal surfaces of posterior teeth (distal surface of canines through molars) is by bite-wing radiographs. 

 

 

 

I 类洞:为发生于所有牙齿的发育窝、沟内的龋损所制备的洞形。包括磨牙[牙合]面窝沟洞,磨牙颊(舌)面的颊(舌)沟洞,前磨牙的[牙合]面窝沟洞,上前牙的腭面窝洞。

II 类洞:为发生于后牙邻面的龋损所制备的洞形。包括前磨牙的邻面洞、邻[牙合]面洞和邻颊(舌)面洞,磨牙的邻[牙合]面洞和邻颊(舌)面洞及邻面洞。

III类洞:为发生于前牙邻面未损及切角的龋损所制备的洞形。包括切牙、尖牙的邻面洞、邻腭(舌)面洞、邻唇面洞。

IV类洞:为发生于前牙邻面并损及切角的龋损所制备的洞形。包括切牙、尖牙的邻唇腭(舌)面洞,目前含义延伸及牙外伤引起切角缺损的洞。

V类洞:为发生与所有牙齿的颊(唇)、舌(腭)面近龈1/3牙面的龋损所制备的洞形。包括前牙、前磨牙、磨牙在颊或舌面的近龈1/3洞。

 

窝洞定义、结构、各部名称、代表符号

(1)窝洞定义:牙齿龋洞去净龋坏组织,经手术制备的具有特定形状的洞。要求填入充填材料后,充填材料及牙齿均能承担正常咀嚼

压力,不折断、不脱落。

(2)窝洞结构:窝洞由洞壁、洞角及洞缘角构成。


    1)洞壁:组成窝洞的内面统称为壁。按其所在牙面部位命名如近中壁、远中壁、颊壁、舌壁、龈壁、髓壁、轴壁等。

    2)洞角:两个洞壁相交构成的角称为线角(Line angles),三个洞壁相交形成的角称为点角(Point angles)。线角及点角的命名

均以构成他们的各洞壁名称联合命名,如颊轴线角、轴髓线角、颊龈轴点角、舌龈轴点角等。

    3)洞缘角(Cavosurface Margin):洞侧壁与牙齿表面的相交线称为洞缘角,也称为洞面角。


(3)窝洞的名称及符号

    1)窝洞的名称:可根据窝洞所在的牙面命名,如牙合面洞、近中洞、近中牙合面洞等;也可以窝洞所包括牙面数命名,如单面

洞、复面洞等。

    2)窝洞的符号:以所在牙面英文名称的第一个字母或前两个字母作为符号,具体如下:

    切端为I(incisive S.)颊侧为B(buccal S.)

    舌侧为L(lingual S.)牙合面为O(occlusal S.)

    唇侧为La(labial S.)近中面为M(medial S.),远中面为D(distal S.)等。


=======================================================================================

Tooth Preparation Walls
---------------------------
Internal Wall. An internal wall is a prepared (cut) surface that does not extend to the external tooth
surface (Fig. 6-10).

Axial Wall. An axial wall is an internal wall parallel
with the long axis of the tooth (see Fig. 6-10).

Pulpal Wall. A pulpal wall is an internal wall that
is perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and
occlusal of the pulp (see Figs. 6-10 and 6-13 [p]).

External Wall. An external wall is a prepared (cut)
surface that extends to the external tooth surface. Such
a wall takes the name of the tooth surface (or aspect)
that the wall is toward (see Fig. 6-10).

Floor (or Seat). A floor (or seat) is a prepared (cut) wall that is reasonably flat and perpendicular to the
occlusal forces that are directed occlusogingivally (generally parallel to the long axis of the tooth).
Examples are the pulpal and gingival walls (see Fig. 6-10).
Such floors may be purposefully prepared to provide
stabilizing seats for the restoration, distributing the
stresses in the tooth structure, rather than concentrating
them. This preparation increases the resistance form (see
later) of the restored tooth against postrestorative fracture.
More regarding this type of resistance form is
presented in a later section.

Enamel Wall. The enamel wall is that portion of
a prepared external wall consisting of enamel (see
Fig. 6-2D).

Dentinal Wall. The dentinal wall is that portion of
a prepared external wall consisting of dentin, in which
mechanical retention features may be located (see
Fig. 6-2D).


龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters
 
龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters
 
龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters



==================================================================================================



洞形设计
--------------

外形设计

窝洞外形的范围应包括所有病变组织和可疑的点隙裂沟,外形应作预防性扩展,邻面侧壁应扩展到接触点以外的自洁区,龈壁应置于平齐眼乳突边缘健康的牙休组织上。窝洞外形线应为圆缓曲线,以减少应力集中。



抗力形设计
-----------
抗力形是使充填体和余留牙能够承受咬合力而不会破裂的特定形状。Ⅰ、Ⅱ类洞对抗力形要求较高,V类洞要求可稍低。
1、洞形深度:窝洞底必须建立在牙本质上,后牙洞深应达釉牙本质界下0.2---0.5mm,前牙应达釉牙本质界的牙本质面。
2、盒状洞形:窝洞应制备成盒状,即除特殊情况外,要洞底平,侧壁平直与洞底相垂直,各侧壁之间相互平行。洞底各点线角应明确而圆钝,使应力不集中,要力均匀分布。
3、梯阶形成:复面洞的洞底应形成梯阶以均匀分担咬合力,其中龈壁与髓壁平行,轴壁与近、远中侧壁平行,各壁交接呈直角,点、线角圆钝。注意龈壁一定要与轴壁垂直,切勿形成向龈方的斜面。
4、无基釉、脆弱牙体处理:窝洞釉质壁应与釉柱排列方向平行,洞口不能留有无基釉;对脆弱的牙尖牙嵴,应适当降低高度,减轻要力负担。



固位形设计
-----------
固位形是使充填体能保留于洞内,承受更力后不移位、不脱落的特定形状。当充填材料与牙体组织无粘结力时,充填体的固位主要靠密合的摩擦力和一定的机械样合力。
1、侧壁固位:相互平行且具有一定深度的侧壁,可使充填体通过和洞壁的密合摩擦而达固位目的。
2、倒凹固位:单面洞可以在牙尖下制备倒凹增强固位,制备倒凹时要防止伤及髓角,因此洞底深度超过釉牙本质界0.5mm以上,应先垫底再制倒凹,较深的洞可以不制倒凹,使用粘结性强的修复材料时也可不制倒凹。
3、 鸠尾固位:鸠尾固位用于复面洞的固位,它借助鸠尾峡部的锁扣作用,防止充填体水平方向的脱出。鸠尾峡必须有一定的深度和宽度,宽度在后牙一般为颊舌牙尖间距的1/3。位置应在洞底轴髓线角的靠中线侧。鸠尾的宽度必须大于鸠尾峡。
4、 梯形固位:也是复面洞采用的固位形,邻雯面洞的邻面设计为龈方大于雯方的梯形,防止充填体呈垂直方向脱出。梯形的外形应作预防性扩展,梯形深度应达釉牙本质界下0.2一0.5mm。




便利形设计
-------------
在维护外形的基础上,在需要的地方略加修整,便于器械和充填物能够达到窝洞的任何部位。要达此目的,可选用适当器械,对洞形作适当延伸;当洞外形位于不健康牙龈处时,可用分离器或木楔分离牙龈,必要时切除部分牙龈。





-----------------------------------------------------

预备步骤

窝洞预备的基本步骤
1、开扩洞口或寻人口:病变部位较隐蔽的龋洞,应首先开扩洞口或寻人口,使龋洞充分暴露或为手术操作形成通路,便于观察和进行操作。可用裂钻或球钻去除洞缘的无基釉质,依病变范围开扩,或用裂钻从龋洞一侧作沟,以形成手术通路。
2、去除腐质:病变范围较大时,应先去除腐质。可先用挖匙除去洞内食物残渣和大部分腐质,然后用球钻将洞缘周围腐质除尽,最后除尽洞底腐质。洞底近髓腔处的少量软化牙本质的去留,应视实际情况而定。
3、设计并制备洞形:窝洞的洞缘线构成窝洞外形。虽然各类窝洞都有基本的外形要求,但洞形的制备还应兼顾病变破坏的范围。腐质除尽后,应依病变范围设计窝洞外形。窝洞应包括所有的病变部位,其颊(唇)、舌壁应达自洁区。窝洞的形态应符合固位形和抗力形的基本原则。制备过程中不可过多磨除健康的牙体组织。
4、修整洞形、清洗窝洞:完成洞形制备后,应去除洞内牙本质碎屑,仔细检查窝洞各部是否腐质已除尽,抗力形、固位形是否符合要求。不符合要求时应进一步去除腐质、修改洞形至达到要求。最后修整洞缘釉质,使与釉柱排列方向一致,并彻底清洗窝洞,除去所有碎屑。
5、窝洞消毒:窝洞预备后洞内牙本质小管中不可避免地会有少量细菌残留,理想的消毒药物,既可杀灭小管中的细菌,又不致损伤牙髓,对窝洞的消毒无疑有益。但目前所用的消毒药物尚不能达到上述要求。因此,除尽腐质远比消毒窝洞重要。除尽腐质即可除去绝大部分细菌,即使有少量细菌残留,由于充填修复后的环境不利细菌生长,经一定时间后也会逐渐丧失活动能力或死亡。
I类洞的制备
I类洞多为单面洞,但当龋损波及颊、舌侧面时,应制成复面洞。单面洞应底平、壁直,窝洞深度达釉牙本质界处。较深的龋损不必要求窝洞底平整,在去尽腐质后可借助垫底形成平底。复面洞时,颊面或舌面窝洞的龈壁应与牙长轴垂直,其近远中和颊舌宽度均不小于1.5mm。近、远中壁相互平行并垂直于龈壁,轴壁与龈壁垂直。要面鸠尾固位形的洞形要求同单面洞。鸠尾峡的宽度不小于1.5mm,用高速气涡轮牙钻(裂钻)沿颊沟或舌沟向更面中央窝沟或远中窝沟扩展形成鸠尾形。洞底髓壁与轴壁垂直,形成梯阶。
Ⅱ类洞的制备
Ⅱ类洞依病变破坏范围可制备单面洞或复面洞。当病变已累及接触区时,应制备复面洞;若病变未累及接触区,为避免过多磨除健康的牙齿组织,可从邻面制备单面洞;如果从邻面操作极为困难,也可制成复面洞,从更面进行操作。Ⅱ类洞多数情况下需制备成复面洞。
邻面部分制备:用裂钻从舌面边缘蜻处开扩洞口,钻轴与更面垂直,洞口的大小与邻面破坏范围一致。将邻面洞制备成盒状洞形,龈壁与轴壁垂直,宽度不超过2mm。颊舌壁位于自洁区并在要方略靠拢,使龈方颊舌壁间距略大于雯方。
Ⅲ类洞的制备
视病变范围的大小和邻面的存在与否可备成单面洞或复面洞。
1、单面洞的制备:病变范围较小,龋洞的颊、舌壁有一定厚度且同时伴有龋损侧邻牙缺失,可制备单面洞。
1.1 用倒锥钻从邻面去除龋损腐质。
1.2 按单面洞制备方法将窝洞制备成与患牙邻面外形相一致的三角形,洞底与牙面形态一致呈凸形,深度达釉牙本质界即可。
1.3 可在唇轴舌点角处制作倒凹,倒凹位于釉牙本质界下约0.5毫米处的牙本质中。
2、复面洞的制备:若前牙邻面龋损破坏范围大,或龋损侧邻牙存在,无备洞操作空间,须制备复面洞。
2.1 视龋损破坏范围及方向确定从舌侧或唇侧扩大洞口,如唇侧未遭破坏则尽量从舌侧人口。
2.2 用裂钻从舌面边缘峰处开扩洞口,洞口的切龈向宽度应与邻面破坏范围一致。邻面洞形与单面洞相同。
2.3 用裂钻从邻面约lmm深处向舌侧窝扩展形成鸠尾形,裂钻的长轴应与舌面垂直。舌面窝洞的洞形与I类洞相同。鸠尾一般不过中线,其切龈宽度约为2.5mm。切牙的鸠尾应不损伤切嵴、对侧的边缘嵴和舌隆突;由于切牙的唇舌径较小,制作鸠尾固位形时,不可加深窝洞,以免降低牙齿的抗力和意外穿髓。舌面洞底(髓壁)与邻面洞底(轴壁)互相垂直并形成梯阶。
IV类洞的制备
因受银汞合金充填材料性能所限,目前一般不用银汞合金修复IV类洞而改用复合树脂类修复材料。
V类洞的制备
1、用小号倒锥钻从唇、颊侧备洞,钻针应垂直于牙面,深度约达釉牙本质界处的牙本质中。
2、洞外形呈肾形,洞底呈凸面,与牙面平行。
3、龈壁与洞底垂直,可在轴龈线角或轴妥线角处作倒凹以增进固位。

作者  | 2010-3-13 18:15:18 | 阅读(2601) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

神经纤维(aka 轴突)

2015-1-5 21:00:41 阅读38 评论0 52015/01 Jan5

神经纤维(aka 轴突)
http://mcsl.xjtu.edu.cn/zonglian/data/ppt/09gaohu-shenjing.pdf

1.
根据电生理学的特性分类主要是根据传导速度(复合动作电位内各波峰出现的时间)和后电位的差异,将哺乳类动物的周围神经的纤维分为A、B、C三类 。

A类:包括有髓鞘的躯体的传入和传出纤维,根据其平均传导速度又进一步分为α、β、γ、δ四类。

B类:有髓鞘的自主神经的节前纤维 。

C类:包括无髓鞘的躯体传入纤维(drC)及自主神经节后纤维(sC)。

D类纤维的直径<3μm,传导速度<15m/s,与Aδ纤维非常近似,但两者的锋电位及后电位很不相同。Aδ纤维的锋电位时程较长,后负后电位,而有一个大的正后电位。



2.
根据纤维的直径的大小及来源分类将传入纤维分为I、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、N四类
,I类纤维中包括Ia和Ib两类。

上述两种分类法在实际使用中存在一些问题,
例如C类和N类纤维都可用来表示无髓纤维,
Aα和I类纤维又常用来表示传导速度最快的纤维,从而造成混乱。
因此,
目前对传出纤维采用第一种分类法,
对传入纤维则采用第二种分类法。

神经纤维(aka 轴突) - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters
 

神经纤维的分类
按髓鞘厚薄:有髓和无髓纤维;
按兴奋传导方向:传入和传出纤维;
按末梢释放的递质:胆碱能纤维、肾上腺素能纤维等。

1.按电生理学特性分类  (主要是根据动作电位传导速度和动作电位中后电位成分的差异)

纤维类别
http://mcsl.xjtu.edu.cn/zonglian/data/ppt/09gaohu-shenjing.pdf

A (有髓)  α、β、γ、δ
        Aα?? 肌梭传入纤维,支配梭外肌的传出纤维 13~22 70~120 0.4~0.5
        Aβ? 皮肤触压觉的传入纤维 8~13 30~70 0.4~0.5
        Aγ?? 支配梭内肌的传出纤维 4~8 15~30 0.4~0.5
        Aδ?? 皮肤痛、温觉传入纤维 1~4 12~30 0.4~0.5
    
B (有髓) 自主神经节前纤维 1~3 3~15 1.2
    
C (无髓)  sC 自主神经节后纤维 0.3~1.3 0.7~2.3 2.0
             drC 后根中痛觉传入纤维 0.4~1.2 0.6~2.0 2.0

 
2.按纤维直径大小和来源分类 

纤维类别                                     直径大小         速度          电生理学分类
Ia               肌梭的传入纤维            12~22         70~120                  Aα?
Ib               腱器官的传入纤维          12左右       70左右                   Aα?
II                皮肤机械感受器传入纤维(触-压、振动觉) 5~12       25~70      Aβ?
III               皮肤痛、温觉,肌肉的深部压觉传入纤维 2~5 10~25             Aδ?
IV               无髓的痛觉、温度、机械感受器传入纤维 0.1~1.3 1左右            C


    对传入纤维常用直径分类法,对传出纤维则多用电生理学特性分类法。

例如,
支配梭外肌和梭内肌的传出纤维分别用A?和A???表示;
肌梭和腱器官的传入纤维常用?a和?b表示。
但有时仍采用习惯命名,
如传导皮肤快痛和慢痛的神经纤维仍多用??和C表示。

作者  | 2015-1-5 21:00:41 | 阅读(38) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

Common FlexNet error codes:

2015-1-3 13:24:29 阅读33 评论0 32015/01 Jan3

Common FlexNet error codes

Oct 31, 2014

Issue:

You want information about common FlexNet? error codes and their meaning.

Solution:

The following table lists the most common FlexNet error codes that may be displayed by the Autodesk Network License Manager. Error codes typically display as Error[1.5. ###] where ### corresponds to the error codes listed in the table. 
 
Error CodeDescription
21lc_flexinit failed because there were insufficient rights to start the FlexNet Publisher Service. Resolve this by setting the service to start automatically.
20FlexNet Publisher Service is not installed.
13Computed path to required file is too long for Mac OS X operating system.
12Invalid bundle ID on Mac OS X operating system.
11Framework specified by bundle ID was not loaded.
10Error creating path from URL.
9Error creating URL.
8Path string not specified in UTF-8 format.
7A call to lc_flexinit is not allowed after a call to lc_flexinit_cleanup.
6Activation application has not been processed using the preptool
5Unable to allocate resources.
4Initialization failed.
3Unsupported version of the operating system.
2Unable to load activation library.
1Unable to find activation library.
-1Cannot find license file.
-2Invalid license file syntax.
-3No license server system for this feature.
-4Licensed number of users already reached.
-5No such feature exists.
-6No TCP/IP port number in license file and FLEXnet Licensing Service does not exist. (pre-v6 only)
-7No socket connection to license server manager service.
-8Invalid (inconsistent) license key or signature. The license key/signature and data for the feature do not match. This usually happens when a license file has been altered.
-9Invalid host. The hostid of this system does not match the hostid specified in the license file.
-10Feature has expired.
-11Invalid date format in license file.
-12Invalid returned data from license server system.
-13No SERVER lines in license file.
-14Cannot find SERVER host name in network database. The lookup for the host name on the SERVER line in the license file failed. This often happens when NIS or DNS or the hosts file is incorrect. Work around: Use IP address (for example, 123.456.789.123) instead of host name.
-15Cannot connect to license server system. The server (lmadmin or lmgrd) has not been started yet, or the wrong port@host or license file is being used, or the TCP/IP port or host name in the license file has been changed. Windows XP SP2 platforms have a limit on the number of TCP/IP connection attempts per second that can be made, which your application may have exceeded. Refer to the manufacturer's documentation on how to change this limit.
-16Cannot read data from license server system.
-17Cannot write data to license server system.
-18License server system does not support this feature.
-19Error in select system call.
-20License server system busy (no majority).
-21License file does not support this version.
-22Feature checkin failure detected at license server system.
-23License server system temporarily busy (new server connecting).
-24Users are queued for this feature.
-25License server system does not support this version of this feature.
-26Request for more licenses than this feature supports.
-29Cannot find ethernet device.
-30Cannot read license file.
-31Feature start date is in the future.
-32No such attribute.
-33Bad encryption handshake with vendor daemon.
-34Clock difference too large between client and license server system.
-35In the queue for this feature.
-36Feature database corrupted in vendor daemon.
-37Duplicate selection mismatch for this feature. Obsolete with version 8.0 or later vendor daemon.
-38User/host on EXCLUDE list for feature.
-39User/host not on INCLUDE list for feature.
-40Cannot allocate dynamic memory.
-41Feature was never checked out.
-42Invalid parameter.
-47Clock setting check not available in vendor daemon.
-52Vendor daemon did not respond within timeout interval.
-53Checkout request rejected by vendor-defined checkout filter.
-54No FEATURESET line in license file.
-55Incorrect FEATURESET line in license file.
-56Cannot compute FEATURESET data from license file.
-57socket call failed.
-59Message checksum failure.
-60License server system message checksum failure.
-61Cannot read license file data from license server system.
-62Network software (TCP/IP) not available.
-63You are not a license administrator.
-64lmremove request before the minimum lmremove interval.
-67No licenses available to borrow.
-68License BORROW support not enabled.
-69FLOAT_OK can’t run standalone on license server system.
-71Invalid TZ environment variable.
-73Local checkout filter rejected request.
-74Attempt to read beyond end of license file path.
-75SYS$SETIMR call failed (VMS). Indicates and error due to an operating system failure.
-76Internal FLEXnet Licensing error. Please report error to Flexera Software.
-77Bad version number must be floating-point number with no letters.
-82Invalid PACKAGE line in license file.
-83FLEXnet Licensing version of client newer than server.
-84USER_BASED license has no specified users; see license server system log.
-85License server system doesn’t support this request.
-87Checkout exceeds MAX specified in options file.
-88System clock has been set back.
-89This platform not authorized by license.
-90Future license file format or misspelling in license file. The file was issued for a later version of FLEXnet Licensing than this program understands.
-91Encryption seeds are non-unique.
-92Feature removed during lmreread, or wrong SERVER line hostid.
-93This feature is available in a different license pool. This is a warning condition. The server has pooled one or more INCREMENT lines into a single pool, and the request was made on an INCREMENT line that has been pooled.
-94Attempt to generate license with incompatible attributes.
-95Network connect to THIS_HOST failed. Change this_host on the SERVER line in the license file to the actual host name.
-96License server machine is down or not responding. See the system administrator about starting the server, or make sure that you're referring to the right host.
-97The desired vendor daemon is down. 1) Check the lmadmin or lmgrd log file or 2) Try lmreread.
-98This FEATURE line can’t be converted to decimal format.
-99The decimal format license is typed incorrectly.
-100Cannot remove a linger license.
-101All licenses are reserved for others. The system administrator has reserved all the licenses for others. Reservations are made in the options file. The server must be restarted for options file changes to take effect.
-102A FLEXid borrow error occurred.
-103Terminal Server remote client not allowed.
-104Cannot borrow that long.
-105Feature already returned to license server.
-106License server system out of network connections. The vendor daemon can't handle any more users. See the debug log for further information.
-110Cannot read dongle: check dongle or driver. Either the dongle is unattached, or the necessary software driver for this dongle type is not installed.
-112Missing dongle driver. In order to read the FLEXid hostid, the correct driver must be installed. These drivers are available from your software publisher.
-114SIGN= keyword required, but missing from license certificate. You need to obtain a SIGN= version of this license from your vendor.
-115Error in Public Key package.
-116TRL not supported for this platform.
-117BORROW failed.
-118BORROW period expired.
-119lmdown and lmreread must be run on license server.
-120Cannot lmdown the server when licenses are borrowed.
-121FLOAT_OK requires exactly one FLEXid hostid.
-122Unable to delete local borrow info.
-123Returning a borrowed license early is not supported. Contact the publisher for further details.
-124Error returning borrowed license.
-125A PACKAGE component must be specified.
-126Composite hostid not initialized.
-127A item needed for the composite hostid is missing or invalid.
-128Error, borrowed license doesn't match any known server license.
-135Error enabling the event log.
-136Event logging is disabled.
-137Error writing to the event log.
-139Communications timeout.
-140Bad message command.
-141Error writing to socket. Peer has closed socket.
-142Error, cannot generate version specific license tied to a single hostid, which is composite.,
-143Version-specific signatures are not supported for uncounted licenses.
-144License template contains redundant signature specifiers.
-145Bad V71_LK signature.
-146Bad V71_SIGN signature.
-147Bad V80_LK signature.
-148Bad V80_SIGN signature.
-149Bad V81_LK signature.
-150Bad V81_SIGN signature.
-151Bad V81_SIGN2 signature.
-152Bad V84_LK signature.
-153Bad V84_SIGN signature.
-154Bad V84_SIGN2 signature.
-155License key required but missing from the license certificate. The application requires a license key in the license certificate. You need to obtain a license key version of this certificate from your publisher.
-156Invalid signature specified with the AUTH= keyword.
-157Trusted storage has been compromised; repair needed. Contact your publisher for repair instructions.
-158Trusted storage open failure. Contact your publisher for further information.
-159Invalid fulfillment record. Contact your publisher for further information.
-160Invalid activation request received. Contact your publisher for further information.
-161No fulfillment exists in trusted storage which matches the request. Contact your publisher for further information.
-162Invalid activation response received. Contact your publisher for further information.
-163Cannot return the specified activation. Contact your publisher for further information.
-164Return count(s) would exceed the maximum for the fulfillment. Contact your publisher for further information.
-165No repair count left. Contact your publisher for further repair authorization.
-166Specified operation not allowed. Contact your publisher for further information.
-167The requested activation has been denied because the user or host is excluded from activating this entitlement by a specification in the options file.
-168The options file contains include specifications for the entitlement, and this user or host is not included in these specifications.
-169Activation error. Contact your publisher for further information.
-170Invalid date format in trusted storage. Can be caused by setting your system clock to an earlier date. Check that your system clock is set to the current date and time.
-171Message encryption failed. Internal error. Please report to Flexera Software Inc.
-172Message decryption failed. Internal error. Please report to Flexera Software Inc.
-173Bad filter context. Internal error. Please report to Flexera Software Inc.
-174SUPERSEDE feature conflict. Contact your publisher for further information.
-175Invalid SUPERSEDE_SIGN syntax. Contact your publisher for further information.
-176SUPERSEDE_SIGN does not contain a feature name and license signature. Contact your publisher for further information.
-177ONE_TS_OK is not supported in this Windows Platform.
-178Internal error. Please report to Flexera Software Inc.
-179Only one terminal server remote client checkout is allowed for this feature.
-180Internal error. Please report to Flexera Software Inc.
-181Internal error. Please report to Flexera Software Inc.
-182Internal error. Please report to Flexera Software Inc.
-183More than one ethernet hostid not supported in composite hostid definition. Contact your publisher for further information.
-184

The number of characters in the license file paths exceeds the permissible limit. There is a limit on the number of license files that can be used by a license server manager. This limit is on the number of characters in the combined license file paths to the license files:

Unix — 40,960 characters
Windows—20,400 characters

Reduce the number of license files, or relocate them so that the paths are shorter.

-187The time zone information could not be obtained. A license that is time zone limited could not be checked out because time zone information could not be obtained for the machine on which the license is required. Contact your publisher for further information.
-188License client time zone not authorized for license rights. A license that is time zone limited could not be checked out because the time zone of the machine on which the license is required does not match the time zone specified in the license.
-190Feature can be checked out from Physical machine only. The license specifies that it cannot be used on a virtual machine: The FlexEnabled application is installed on a virtual machine so checkout has been denied. Install the FlexEnabled application on a physical machine.
-191FEATURE can be checked out from Virtual machine only. The license specifies that it cannot be used on a physical machine. The FlexEnabled application is installed on a physical machine so checkout has been denied. Install the FlexEnabled application on a virtual machine.
-192VM platform not authorized by license.
-193FNP vendor keys do not support Virtualization feature.
-194Checkout request denied as it exceeds the MAX limit specified in the options file., host, or display.
-195Binding agent API - Internal error.
-196Binding agent communication error
-197Invalid Binding agent version.
-201Invalid IP address used while overriding.

The IP address specified for the LM_A_INTERNET_OVERRIDE attribute, used to override the existing IP address, is invalid.

 

This information and more is also available in the License Administration Guide (LicenseAdministration.pdf) that gets installed with the Autodesk Network License Manager.

作者  | 2015-1-3 13:24:29 | 阅读(33) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

Configuring FLEXnet Licensing

2015-1-3 12:19:14 阅读30 评论0 32015/01 Jan3

Configuring FLEXnet Licensing

These are basic instructions for configuring FLEXnet licensing.

They are only applicable if your site has purchased Open Inventor run-time floating licenses for use with FLEXnet. The standard Open Inventor licensing does not use FLEXnet, so if you are using standard licensing, these instructions do not apply to you.

Overview

The FLEXnet software supports a wide array of licensing options. Currently, VSG provides the FLEXnet licensing option to support floating licenses. In this scenario, a site purchases a specific number, N, of Open Inventor licenses. The FLEXnet license server tracks the licenses being used and allows simultaneous use of up to N instances of the Open Inventor software. The advantage of this approach is that, unlike standard Open Inventor licensing, Open Inventor is not locked to a specific computer, but can be run on any computer that can communicate with the license server.

images/FloatingLicenses.png

A small set of FLEXnet-related files are provided for managing the FLEXnet licensing. These files must be copied onto the system to where the license server will be run. The license server can be run on the same system where Open Inventor is installed, but it doesn't have to be.

One of the supplied files, lmgrd ("license manager daemon"), is a FLEXnet executable that is responsible for starting the vendor daemon, which does the actual checking in and out of licenses specific to that vendor. The supplied vendor daemon, mcslmd ("Visualization Sciences Group license manager daemon"), handles the requests for licenses from the Open Inventor application programs.

There is a FLEXnet license file that is read by the server. This license file contains information indicating which products are licensed and how many licenses are allowed for each.

In addition, each Open Inventor installation has a separate license file which indicates the name of the FLEXnet license server.

The sections below will provide the basic technical details of installing and managing a FLEXnet license server.

For complete technical details regarding FLEXnet itself, see the Web site of Flexera Software, supplier of the FLEXnet licensing software (www.flexerasoftware.com):

Getting Started

The first thing to do is decide on which computer you wish to run the FLEXnet license server. This system should be "visible" from any system that might want to request a license. It should also be highly reliable.

The server can be installed on a computer on which Open Inventor is installed, but it does not have to be.

It is possible to do FLEXnet licensing in a heterogeneous environment. That is, the server and Open Inventor can be running on different operating systems. For instance, the FLEXnet server could be on a Linux box, with the Open Inventor users running Open Inventor on a Windows platform.

If your site already has a FLEXnet license server running that is used for licensing other vendors' products, this may affect where and how you decide to configure the Open Inventor license server. The FLEXnet documentation from Acresso can help you with this decision. See, for example, the chapter "Managing Licenses from Multiple Vendors" in the FLEXnet Licensing End User Guide.

For the rest of this discussion, we will assume that you will be setting up a license server used only for licensing Open Inventor.

Once you have selected the server machine, if you are not going to run the server from the Open Inventor installation directory (i.e., from <oiv_install_dir>/<architecture>/license/flexnet), you will need to copy the FLEXnet-related files provided by VSG to that system into an empty directory.

Suggested server directory name:

 oiv_flexnet

The FLEXnet files are provided in:

 <oiv_install_dir>/<architecture>/license/flexnet

If you need FLEXnet files for a platform other than the one on which you will be running Open Inventor, please contact technical support.

Instructions for installing and configuring the server are provided in below.

Providing License Server Identification Information to VSG

In order for VSG to generate a FLEXnet license, we will need the following information about the system on which the license server is running/will run:

  1. its host name (or IP address), and
  2. its host ID.

Instructions for capturing this info are given below (UNIXWindows).

You will send this info to the License Administrator, who will generate the license and send it to you via email.

From North, South, and Central America

Email: license@vsg3d.com
Phone: +1 978 967 3206
Fax: +1 978 967 3303

From Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Australasia

Email: license_eu@vsg3d.com
Phone: +33 556 13 37 71
Fax: +33 556 13 02 10

Please include also:

  • The name and version number of each product for which you are requesting a password.
  • Your name and company name.
  • Your VSG Customer ID # (if you know it). If you don't know it, please provide as much identifying info as you can.
  • Your phone number, FAX number, and email address.

UNIX

  1. On the system where the server is running/will run, in a command shell, go to the directory where the server will be installed:
     cd <server_install_dir>
  2. To get the host ID, execute the lmutil program as follows:
     lmutil lmhostid

    The output will look like:

     lmutil - Copyright (c) 1989-2005 Macrovision Europe Ltd. and/or Macrovision 
    Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
    The FLEXlm host ID of this machine is "001422505387"
  3. To get the hostname, you can use any of the following commands:
     uname -a
    hostname
    lmutil lmhostid -hostname
  4. To get the IP address (optional):
     lmutil lmhostid -internet
  5. Copy/paste the lmhostid output and the hostname (or IP address) into a mail message and send it to the VSG License Administrator as described above.

Windows

  1. On the system where the server is running/will run, run LMTOOLS. It should be located in:
     <server_install_dir>\lmtools.exe
  2. Click on the Systems Settings tab. 

    images/SystemSettings.png 

    • The Computer/Hostname field contains the required host name.
    • The Ethernet Address field contains the required host id.
    • The IP Address field contains the optional IP address.

  3. Copy/paste those values into a mail message and send them to the VSG License Administrator as described above.

Installing the FLEXnet Server (UNIX)

At this point, we assume that the FLEXnet files are in their desired location:

  • either in the default location, <oiv_install_dir>/<architecture>/license/flexnet
  • or have been copied to <some_path>/oiv_flexnet directory on the system where the server will run.

The vendor daemon mcslmd must be in the same directory as lmgrd.

The command to start the server looks like:

 lmgrd -c <server_license_file> -l [+]<debug_log_path>
where:
  • <server_license_file> is the full path to the server license file, and
  • <debug_log_path> is the path to the debug log file.

Prepending the + character the the log file name causes log entries to be appended.

The following is the suggested command to use:

 lmgrd -c passwordServer.dat -l +flexnet.log

TIP: It can be convenient to set up the server so that it is started automatically upon system reboot. This would involve editing the system boot script. See the FLEXnet Licensing End User Guide, chapter "The License Server Manager" for details.

Installing the FLEXnet Server (Windows)

At this point, we assume that the FLEXnet files are in their desired location:
  • either in the default location, <oiv_install_dir>\<architecture>\license\flexnet
  • or have been copied to <some_path>\oiv_flexnet directory on the system where the server will run.

FLEXnet uses a program called lmgrd to manage licenses. On Windows, FLEXnet provides a GUI called LMTOOLS that allows one to configure lmgrd to run as a service. This is the preferred method of configuring FLEXnet and is outlined below.

NOTE: To configure a license server as a service, you must have Administrator privileges.

The vendor daemon mcslmd.exe must be in the same directory as lmgrd.exe.


  1. Run LMTOOLS

  2. Click the Configuration using Services radio button to select it. 

  3. Click the Config Services tab. 

  4. In the Service Name field, type the name of the service that you want to define.

    It is recommended that you use the name OIV License Manager.

Configuring FLEXnet Licensing - godsonx - NDEB Exam BustersScreenshot of steps 2 and 3
  1. In the Path to the lmgrd.exe file field, enter or browse to lmgrd.exe for this license server.

    In many cases the path will be:

     <oiv_install_dir>\<architecture>\license\flexnet\lmgrd.exe.
  2. In the Path to the license file field, enter or browse to the license file for this license server.

    It is recommended that you copy the server license file to:

     <oiv_install_dir>\<architecture>\license\flexnet\passwordServer.dat
  3. In the Path to the debug log file, enter or browse to the debug log file that this license server writes. For example, FLEXnet.log.

    (Prepending the debug log file name with the + character appends logging entries. The default location for the debug log file is the C:\WINDOWS\System32 folder. To specify a different location, make sure you specify a fully qualified path.)

    For most users, the following should be appropriate:

     +<oiv_install_dir>\<architecture>\license\flexnet\flexnet.log
  4. (Optional) Click on the View Log button to display the log file. Check that no logging errors occur (i.e., log file is openable and it contains readable text). Click on the Close Log button to close the log file. 

  5. To ensure that the license service is always running and automatically started upon system reboot, it is necessary to set the two checkboxes, Use Services and Start Server at Power Up, at the bottom of the dialog. 

  6. To save the new OIV License Manager service, click the Save Service button.
Configuring FLEXnet Licensing - godsonx - NDEB Exam BustersScreenshot of steps 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10

Starting the Server (Windows)

Once the license manager service is configured, lmgrd is started by starting the service from the LMTOOLS interface:
  1. Run LMTOOLS if it is not already running. LMTOOLS appears with the Service/License File tab open. 

  2. Click the Configuration using Services radio button. 

  3. Select the service name from the list presented in the selection box.

    If you followed the recommendations above, the service name should be OIV License Manager

  4. Click the Start/Stop/Reread tab.
Configuring FLEXnet Licensing - godsonx - NDEB Exam BustersScreenshot of steps 2, 3, and 4
  1. Start OIV License Manager by clicking the Start Server button.

The OIV License Manager license server should now be started and writing its debug log output to <oiv_install_dir>\<architecture>\license\flexnet\flexnet.log.

NOTE: Any time you make a change to the server configuration, you should stop the server then restart it in order for the changes to take effect.

NOTE: Any time you make a change to the server password file, you should use the Start/Stop/Reread tab, and press the ReReadLicenseFilebutton. If the first time you press it, the operation fails, wait briefly (a minute or less), and try pressing it again.

Configuring FLEXnet Licensing - godsonx - NDEB Exam BustersScreenshot of step 5

Installing the Server License File

After you send your license server info to the VSG License Administrator, you will receive an email containing FLEXnet license strings.

Here's an example server license file:

 
SERVER XP-PANGOLIN2 001234567890 VENDOR mcslmd
FEATURE OpenInventor mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=9F667CAD92
FEATURE OpenInventorSDK mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=1E9D961EEA
FEATURE VolumeVizLDM mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=C1AF9459F8
FEATURE VolumeViz mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=873B4AC82
FEATURE FXViz mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=AEA7626B66
FEATURE MeshViz mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=27291E2020
FEATURE HardCopy mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=22131C30D0
FEATURE ScaleViz mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=A2E3800ECA
FEATURE SolidViz mcslmd 6.0 permanent 2 SIGN=A7E5516ED732

UNIX

On UNIX, the server license file is specified when the server is started.

  1. Decide where you want to place the server license info supplied by the License Administrator.

    Recommended location:

     <server_install_dir>/passwordServer.dat
  2. Using a text editor, copy the server license strings into that file. 

  3. Start the server:
     lmgrd -c passwordServer.dat -l +flexnet.log
    (See the section above for more information about starting the server.)

Windows

  1. Decide where you want to place the server license info supplied by the License Administrator.

    Recommended location:

     <server_install_dir>\passwordServer.dat
  2. Using a text editor, copy the server license strings into that file. 

  3. Run LMTOOLS, click on the Config Services tab, then specify the "path to the license file". 

  4. For this change to take effect, stop and restart the server using the Start/Stop/Reread tab.

Installing the Client License Files (All Platforms)

Each system that might request an Open Inventor license from the FLEXnet license server must have an Open Inventor license file.

Here's an example client license file:

 SERVER XP-PANGOLIN2 ANY
USE_SERVER

On each client system, copy the client license info to the Open Inventor license file.

The default (and recommmended) location is:

 <oiv_install_dir>/<architecture>/license/password.dat

This can be changed by setting the VSG_LICENSE_FILE environment variable to a new path, including the file name. Once this variable is set, Open Inventor automatically looks for the license file in the specified location. If Open Inventor cannot find the license file, the user is presented with a dialog that asks for the license information. 

Configuring FLEXnet Licensing - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters

Nomad Licensing / Borrowing

To use a FLEXnet floating license on a system that is not always connected to the license server, you will need to "borrow" a license while you are connected to the server, then disconnect from the server. This kind of licensing is what we call "nomad" licensing. Below are the detailed instructions. We will assume that standard FLEXnet licensing, i.e., not borrowing, is already working correctly.

UNIX

  1. On the client machine, in a command shell, go to the directory where the FLEXnet utilities are installed. By default, these utilities are found on the client machine in: <oiv_install_dir>/<architecture>/license/FLEXnet.

    cd <oiv_install_dir>/<architecture>/license/FLEXnet

  2. To initiate borrowing, execute the lmutil program on the client as follows:

    lmutil lmborrow mcslmd <enddate> <time>

    where:

    <enddate> <time> Enddate is the date the license is to be returned in dd-mmm-yyyy format. Time is optional and is specified in 24-hour format (hh:mm) in the FLEXenabled application local time. If time is unspecified, the checkout lasts until the end of the given end date.

    For example:

    lmutil lmborrow mcslmd 16-jan-2007 13:00

To print information about borrowed features, issue the following command on the machine from which they are borrowed:

lmutil lmborrow -status

Windows

  1. Run LMTOOLS on the client machine. By default, LMTOOLS is found on the client machine in: <oiv_install_dir>/<architecture>/License/FLEXnet.

  2. Click on the Borrowing tab.

  3. Specify a return date.

  4. Optional, specify the vendor name (mcslmd).

  5. Press the Set Borrow Expiration button.

  6. Configuring FLEXnet Licensing - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters
  7. Start your Open Inventor Application, then use all of the extensions that you want to borrow. 

  8. Disconnect from the network. 

  9. Exit your Open Inventor Application and confirm that you can restart it and use all of the borrowed modules. 

You can check how many licenses are checked-in or out by pressing the List Currently Borrowed Features button of the Borrowing tab of the LMTOOLS application.

Additional controls can be set directly into the license string. The most important are:

  • Limit the number of token that can be borrowed: 
    Examples: The customer want to keep 60 tokens over his 100 tokens, so only 40 tokens can be borrowed. 
    Add a BORROW_LOWWATER line:
    BORROW_LOWWATERProduct60
  • Limit the number of days a token can be borrowed:
    Examples: One week (7days x 24hours = 168hours). Add a MAX_BORROW_HOURS line:
    MAX_BORROW_HOURS Product 168 
    Notes: If not specified, default value is one year. 

  • Specify who is allowed to borrow:
    • a user
      INCLUDE_BORROW Product USER Jim
    • a group of users
      INCLUDE_BORROW Product GROUP project_dev
    • a computer
      INCLUDE_BORROW Product HOST  hots_name
    • a group of computers
      INCLUDE_BORROW Product HOST_GROUP computer_group

  • Specify who is not allowed to borrow:
    • a user
      EXCLUDE_BORROW Product USER Jim
    • a group of users
      EXCLUDE_BORROW Product GROUP project_dev
    • a computer
      EXCLUDE_BORROW Product HOST  hots_name
    • a group of computers
      EXCLUDE_BORROW Product HOST_GROUP computer_group

Defining groups

  • Group of users: 
    GROUP project_dev Jim Mike Bob
  • Group of computers:  
    HOST_GROUP  computer_group  host1 host2 host3

Reserving tokens

Tokens can be reserved for specific users groups or  computers. 

  • Reserve 10 tokens for an user:
    RESERVE 10 Product USER Jim
  • Reserve 10 tokens for a group of users:
    RESERVE 10 Product GROUP project_dev
  • Reserve 10 tokens for a computer:
    RESERVE 10 Product HOST host1
  • Reserve 10 tokens for a group of computers:
    RESERVE 10 Product HOST_GROUP computer_group

Setting Access Permissions

You can control who is allowed to use a product using the INCLUDE EXCLUDE commands. 

  • Who is allowed to use a product :
    INCLUDE Product USER Jim
    Can be used for GROUP, HOST and HOST_GROUP as described above.
  • Who is not allowed to use a product :
    EXCLUDE Product USER Mike

Troubleshooting

Refer to the FLEXnet documentation. The FLEXnet Licensing End User Guide contains a troubleshooting appendix. If you need assistance getting your FLEXnet licenses installed and operational, please contact technical support.

Technical Support

From North, South, and Central America

Email: hotline@vsg3d.com
Phone: 800 428 7588 (US only)
Phone: +1 760 494 9690
Fax: +1 760 494 9640

From Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Australasia

Email: hotline_eu@vsg3d.com
Phone: +33 556 13 37 71
Fax: +33 556 13 02 10

作者  | 2015-1-3 12:19:14 | 阅读(30) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

How to combine licensing information using FLEXnet

2015-1-3 10:59:42 阅读27 评论0 32015/01 Jan3

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/4115be93dd88d0d232d46a03.html

Flexlm配置说明
    

运行flexlm 的lmtools.exe工具,并做如下配置:

1) 点到Service/License File项,选 "Configuration using Services"这个类型.
2) 点击到Config services->
新建立:Service Name=可以自己取名
Path to the Lmgrd.exe File,这个路径指向 安装授权服务flexlm目录下的\Lmgrd.exe。
Path to the license File,这个路径指向 我们放Crack\license.dat的地方,按软件安装要求放置,再指向。
   Path to the Debug log File,这个路径指向 随便先建个Log文件,指向它就是,一般自己会帮你建立了。

再选中‘Use Services’各‘Check Start Server at Power up’。再点击:save services.

3) 现在选到‘Start/Stop/ReRead tab’标签,Start Server,如果提示:server start successful.则说明加载成功!!



一、什么是 Flexlm

二、Flexlm 是由Flexera公司发明的软件加密方法Flexible License Manager。Flexera公司向软件厂商出售相关开发软件,软件厂商把此加密程序集成到自己的软件中。可以锁定机器的硬盘号,网卡号,使用日期,支持加密狗,以保护软件的知识产权。被80%以上的 EDA软件公司所采用,是目前最流行的EDA软件加密方法,保护着世界上价值几百亿美元的EDA软件。了解Flexlm可以使我们正确的安装,管理和使用多个EDA软件。
Flexlm所管理的是License文件,所以我们首先要了解License文件的结构,以便于运行Flexlm管理License文件。

二、License文件的结构
License文件由注释行,Server行,Demon行, 以及Feature行构成。注释行: 当一行的开始是"#"符号时,该行被License Manager(lmgr32xx)认为是注释行,有时候"|"也可以作为注释行的开始。
Server行 :Server行用来标识一台特定的主机,其格式是::
SERVER nodename id port-number 
                    TCP端口号,如 1234

                  主机的ID号,Win95/98/NT平台下通常是网卡物理地址   
              主机的名称,win95/98/NT下可以用ipconfig命令看到 
      Server行开头的关键字,标识该行为Server行,不能更改. 例如:SERVER hostname 000012345678 TCP:1234  
Daemon(或Vendor)行:Deamon行是用来标识不同的卖主, 或者说是用来标识不同的软件商吧。其常见格式是:
DAEMON daemon_name daemon_path 
daemon的路径 
              daemon的名字 
    Deamon行的关键字,FLEXlm6.0以后的版本也支持用VENDOR 例如: 
DAEMON cdslmd c:\cdslic\bin\cdslmd.exe 
                    Cadence License Daemon的路径 
      Daemon的名字为cdslmd (Cadence License Manager Daemon 的简称)
  Feature行: Feature行是用来对软件特定的功能进行限制的,其常见的格式为:
FEATURE name vendor version expiration_date n Key "Vendor_String" hostID 
                  版本号     过期时间                 主机ID,可省略
            厂商标识                       厂商定义的字符串
          Feature名称             20个字节的密码
    Feature行的关键字               许可的终端用户个数

例如 FEATURE CADV_256SUPUC_ALL cdslmd 8.000 1-jan-0 9 2884F2781DB8 "J" 
                                                    Vendor string
                                              密码 
                                        允许9个终端用户 
                                      0年1月1日过期,0年表示永久有效 
                                版本8.0,可以是时间,也可以是版本号.
                        厂商标识
              Feature名称 ,即允许开通的功能详细的FLEXlm文件格式可以参考FLEXlm的End-User-Manual. 又如:
FEATURE maxplus2 alterad 2001.12 25-sep-2002 uncounted E71125CEA376 \HOSTID=GUARD_ID=T000072362
 FEATURE:关键字
 maxplus2: FEATURE名
 alterad:厂商标识
 2001.12:版本标记
 25-sep-2002 :2002年9月25日超期,如:是permanent或0,表示永不过期
 uncounted:使用人数限制
 E71125CEA376:密码
 HOSTID=GUARD_ID=T000072362 :运行机器的特征, 只有检测到存在T000072362的加密狗时,软件才可以使用。这里也可以指定硬盘号,网卡号等等三、Flexlm License manger工具的安装一些软件并不需要安装专门工具来管理license,如:MaxplusII等。但更多EDA软件需要专门工具进行管理。安装很多EDA软件的时候, 会有一个安装License Server的选项, 安装完成后会在控制面板中发现一个FLEXlm License Manager的工具.四、Flexlm License manger工具的使用点击Flexlm License manger,出现如下窗口中,找到相应lmgrd.exe,并指定license.如果有多个License文件,要用分号隔开。有的EDA软件没有License Server安装选项.但软件本身就自带FLEXlm License Manager, 如 Leonado Spectrum程序组下可以找到FLEXlm Manager这个程序,用鼠标点击运行就会出现上面提到的那个管理窗口。 Win95/98下还需要在autoexec.bat中加入如下一行:
- SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=c:\flexlm\license.dat如果有多个License文件,可以用分号隔开,如:
- SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=c:\flexlm\license1.dat ; d:\altera\license2.dat
Win2000和NT,则需要在系统环境变量中设定这些参数。设置完以后需要重新启动计算机

注意事项
 不要随意更改系统时间!
- Flexlm加密系统会监测系统文件的时间
 更改系统时间导致的常见错误信息:
- Flexlm error, system clock has been set back
 解决方法
- 查找C:\windows\下所有时间不正确的系统文件文件,在正常的系统时间下将其修改保存
- 应用专用文件时间管理软件修改文件时间,我们可以在互联网上下载这类软件,我已经下载了一个这样的软件
- 重装系统如需了解关于FLEXLM更详细的资料请参考FLEXlm的End-User-Manual或浏览:
http://www.flexera.com

设置环境变量以下都是针对Win95/98以及NT来说的. 
   一般说来,License Manager需要在设置一个环境变量才能找到License文件. (有的软件不需要设置环境变量,只需将license文件放置到它的某个目录下面就可以了, 如Active VHDL3.3,只需将license.dat放在它的dat目录下.) 通常环境变量名称是LM_LICENSE_FILE, 大小写无关,Win95/98下的设置方法是在autoexec.bat中加入一行: (不包括下面那些说明) 
SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=c:\flexlm\mylicense.dat 
                      环境变量路径: 该例是License文件的名称及路径 
          变量名称 如果有多个License文件,可以用分号隔开,如: 
SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=c:\flexlm\license1.dat;d:\flexlm\license2.dat 应用软件的License Manager会自动遍历环境变量指定的所有License文件, 查找它所需要的Feature, 不同License文件路径的先后次序无关, 只有WorkviewOffice7.5比较特殊,必须将它的环境变量放在第一个才能工作,否则它就不工作:
SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=c:\WVO75\license.dat;c:\flexlm\mylicense.dat除了LM_LICENSE_FILE这个环境变量名称外, 有些软件还使用自己特定的环境变量名称. 安装软件的时候, 安装程序会一般会自动添加这些环境变量. 如Specctra8.0使用CDS_LIC_FILE环境变量名称: 
SET CDS_LIC_FILE=c:\cdsLic\license.dat 
MentorGraphicsRenoir以及ModelSimEE如果安装的时候选择Mentor Graphics License Manager, 软件会使用MGLS_LICENSE_FILE环境变量: 
SET MGLS_LICENSE_FILE=c:\flexlm\license.dat 如果License是由Server提供的, 那么环境变量的路径应该给出Server的名称以及端口, 而非License文件的路径以及名称, 如: 
SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=1234@www.myhost.edu.cn 
              让License Manager去www.myhost.edu.cn的1234端口获取License 
WinNT下设置环境变量需要在控制面板里面添加, 格式相同.
License文件使用技巧这次想解决的问题是 -- License文件多了怎么办?不知道为什么FLEXlm很流行, 机器里面装得EDA软件多了, 会有若干个 License.dat.由于环境变量只是告诉Lmgr(license manager)从哪儿找它所需要的license文件, 所以:
 第一个解决办法是可以将License.dat换个名字,如pwpcb.Lic, cct80.Lic等等,然后用设置多个License文件环境变量的办法将每一个文件的路径添加到环境变量中:
SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=c:\flexlm\pwpcb.Lic;c:\flexlm\cct80.Lic 
License文件的名称/后缀可以任意选取,只要保证变量设置正确以及License文件有效即可。还可以这么做: ---- 不推荐使用 只设置一个环境变量设置:   SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=c:\flexlm\license.dat,然后把所有的License文件都 copy到FLEXlm目录下, 为了便于区分, 取比较容易记的名字,例如PowerPCB2.1.Lic, ModelSimEE5.2e.Lic,  Specctra8.0.Lic,等等,需要用哪个软件的时候, 把相应的License文件copy一份然后改名为license.dat即可。 Copy, Rename, Copy, Rename...太麻烦了, 于是采用第二种解决办法--合并License.(注:仅用于没有 Server Line的License文件,且软件用的环境变量名为LM_LICENSE_FILE) 前面介绍过License文件的格式,  License文件的内容不再是陌生的了,可以用文本编辑器打开所有的License文件,把它们的内容统统copy&paste到 license.dat里面. 然后只设置一个环境变量:   SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=c:\flexlm\license.dat 
FLEXlm Server方式的License应该如下设置: 
License.dat 文件放在主机中, 主机运行Server提供License服务, 客户端的环境变量设置为 SET LM_LICENSE_FILE=[TCP/IP端口]:[主机名称], 其中端口和主机名称应该和主机的License文件中的Server Line一致, 前面已经简单介绍过, 这里便不再赘述。启动Server的方式有两种, 一是Dos命令行方式, 二是Windoz的窗口方式 
1. Dos 方式 在c: \flexlm目录下可以找到一个Lmgrd.exe文件---License Manager Daemon, 这个Daemon是 FLEXlm Server。License.dat文件需要和Daemon文件放在同一个目录下,启动 license server,可在 c:\ flexlm 目录下执行:c:\flexlm\lmgrd -app -c ;关闭 license server,可在 c:\flexlm 目录下执行:c:\flexlm\lmutil lmdown:lmutil.exe是License Manager Utility.
2. Windoz的窗口方式安装某些软件的时候, 会有一个安装License Server的选项, 选中它安装完成后会在控制面板中发现一个 FLEXlm License Manager的小工具. 在FLEXlm License Manager Setup的TAB里可以选择 Daemon, License文件,以及输出的日志文件; Control的TAB中可以启动/关闭Server以及查看Server状态, 另外几个 TAB还提供了一些其它辅助功能。
Windoz下的这个FLEXlm License Manager要比命令行方式的方便一些, 至少它可以浏览以选取Daemon/License文件, 不过有时候发现控制面板里面找不到. 事实上它是一个控制面板的扩展应用程序, 如在PowerPCB目录下可以找到FLEXlm.cpl这个文件, 用鼠标双击它就运行出上面提到的那个管理窗口。没有研究过解决一个主机运行多个Server分别对应不同的软件的问题。
1.设定环境变量(控制面板--->系统-->环境)LM_LICENSE_FILE,多数软件都使用这个变量,这也是冲突根源。但也有一些软件用别的名称,如:
UG--------->UGII_LICENSE_FILE=12345@CAD
ESRD------->ESRD5_LICENSE_FILE=F:\ESRD\STRESSCHECK5以下变量由软件安装时或第一次设定后自动保存在注册表里:
MASTERCAM----->MCFLEX_LICENSE_FILE=F:\MILL72\LICENSE
COSMOS系列---->BRNI_LICENSE_FILE=F:\COSMOSM\LICENSE\FLEXLM\LICENSE.DAT
MSC系列------->MSC_LICENSE_FILE=F:\MSC\FLEXLM\LICENSES\LICENSE.DAT
MAPLE6-------->MAPLELMG_LICENSE_FILE=F:\MAPLE 6\LICENSE\LICENSE.DAT注意事项:
1. 没有设好会出现错误如:
I-DEASETECTED LOSS OF COMMUNICATION WITH I-DEAS LICENSE DAEMON.
2. RO/E好像不用设定LM_LICENSE_FILE安装自动设<COMPUTER NAME>@7788;
3. LM_LICENSE_FILE变量可设置多个路径如:
F:\FEMAP80\LICENSE.DAT;F:\MARC\security\license.dat;中间用";"格开
4. 若是I-DEAS和别的软件冲突可在\IDEAS\MS7\bin\setup_varbs.cmd中加set LM_LICENSE_FILE=%SDRC_INSTL%\sec\license.dat
5. MASTERCAM7.2B安装后好像应清除LM_LICENSE_FILE设置,软件第一次运行时会让你查找LICENSE.DAT,然后自动保存在注册表里。
6. FEMAP8.0A的LICENSE.DAT应设在路径最前面,否则会出现以下错误INVALID LICENSE INFO,可能是它采用FLEXLM7.1b的原因?
7. :若设定多个LM_LICENSE_FILE路径有问题,可先设一个调试,确定是否是LM_LICENSE_FILE的原因?
8. 在控制面板-->FLEXLM LICENSE MANAGER-->SETUP中设SERVICE NAME,

9.  若控制面板没有FLEXLM LICENSE MANAGER可从\PTC\FLEXLM\OBJ OR\UG160\UGFLEXLM拷贝一个 FLEXLM.CPL到\WINNT\SYSTEM32,当然对FLEXLM7.0可直接用LMTOOLS.EXE,但是其 START/STOP SERVER和查询SERVER STATUS不在一组内我感觉不如6.1方便,也可到控制面板-->服务中查询 SERVER STATUS,更加直观
10. SERVICE NAME有时要手工设定,这取决于安装时选SERVER或CLIEN,详细可看.NFO文件,SERVICE NAME最好取与软件及版本相关如:I-DEAS8.0,因为软件安装时可能自动取相同的SERVICE NAME
11.  对PTC Pro/E和UG设一个SERVICE NAME就可以了,因为其高版本LICENSE可用于低版本,PTC PRO/E2000i的 FLEXLM6.1不用UNINSTALL,可直接用于代替PRO/E2000i2 FLEXLM7.0,对于UG带PACKAGE的license得用 UG FLEXlm Licensing选择不同PACKAGE好像最多只能选两个?
12. 对MSC和COSMOS(SRAC)系列可能要合并LICENSE,设一个SERVICE NAME并用最新的LMGRD.EXE及DAEMON(MSC.EXE,SRAC.EXE),对于NASTRAN FOR WIN4.6还要多设一个FEAMAP7
13. 若是对同一软件设多个SERVICE NAME,会使LMGRD.EXE不断调用DAMON,系统会很慢,CPU近100%,应REMOVE一个SERVICE NAME
14. 有些软件不用设SERVICE NAME如:IMAGWARE SURF,ESRD STRESSCHECK,MASTERCAM,MAPLE6直接COPY LICENSE.DAT到安装目录或C:\FEXLM,不知道是何原因?
15. 要查看LICENSE是否正确可STOP SERVER,START SERVER再看Debug.log信息


=========================================================

E.G.


原文作者: houniao(转帖请注明作者)
系统:Windows 7 RTM 旗舰版(32位版)
安装目标目录:F:\SIMULIA\
ABAQUS版本:6.8.1
安装分四步:
第一步,安装帮助文档:
运行F:\ ABAQUS6.8\setup.exe,根据提示操作,在提示输入hostname/IP address时输入完整的计算机名称,然后当有选择安装路径时自己选择想要的安装路径,然后Next直至完成。
第二步,安装Microsoft Visual C++支持:
运行F:\ABAQUS6.8\win86_32\vcredist_x86-2.exe。
注:64位的机器请运行F:\ABAQUS6.8\win86_64文件夹下相应程序。
第三步,安装授权许可:
运行F:\ABAQUS6.8\win86_32\license\Windows\Disk1\InstData\VM\install.exe。
一路Next直到出现需要输入HOSTNAME时,输入计算机全名,若已自动输入则Next,接着选择授权文件的安装类型,此处选择Just install the licensing utilities。然后当有选择安装路径时自己选择想要的安装路径,然后Next直至完成。
安装完毕后,用记事本打开F:\ABAQUS6.8\SHooTERS\abaqus68_SummerEdition.dat,将第一行中第一个空格后的this_host改成完整的计算机名,(端口号如想同以前版本相同,可将27003改成27000),在第二行ABAQUSLM后空一格,然后输入 ABAQUSLM.exe的完整路径(注意带引号,以我的为例:"F:\SIMULIA\License\ABAQUSLM.exe"),另存为安装目录的License文件夹下(以我的为例:"F:\SIMULIA\License\"),文件名改成license.dat。并在此文件夹下新建一txt 文件,然后改成debug.log文件。
打开安装目录的License文件夹下的lmtools.exe程序,进入Config Services选项卡,在Service Name中键入ABAQUS68 FLEXlm license manager,lmgrd.exe指向License安装目录中的lmgrd.exe文件,license file指向License安装目录中的license.dat(刚才修改的文件),debug log file指向刚才新建的debug.log文件。勾选Use servises选项,点击Save Service保存设置。
添加环境变量:计算机>属性>高级系统设置>“高级”选项卡>环境变量>系统变量,点击 “新建”,在“变量名”中输入LM_LICENSE_FILE,在“变量值”中输入27003@HOSTNAME( HOSTNAME为完整的计算机名),如27003@myPC。
启动服务(这里WIN7和XP不同,需要间接启动):在硬盘任意位置新建一txt文档,在其中输入以下内容: 
Echo off
F:\SIMULIA\License\lmgrd.exe -c "F:\SIMULIA\License\license.dat" F:\SIMULIA\License\debug.log" -x lmdown
Echo on
另存为Flexlm_Start.bat,把此文件拖入“开始”菜单>“所有程序”>“启动”文件夹下,使其开机自动启动服务。
重启计算机。
注:我想这是Flexlm本身的问题,其启动管理器的lmgrd启动方式可能跟Vista、WIN7有一点不兼容,尤其是可能不能自动以管理员方式运行命令行,因此,我就想到了直接用命令行方式来启动lmgrd,结果真的就成功了,所有的依赖Flexlm的CAX软件都可以正常运行了!(以此类推,所有使用lmgrd启动的CAX软件,在Vista、Windows7下都可以借鉴此方法进行间接启动相关服务。)
第四步,安装product:
兼容模式运行F:\ABAQUS6.8\win86_32\product\Windows\Disk1\InstData\VM\install..exe
【右击install.exe—属性--兼容性—勾选“以兼容模式运行这个程序”—选择windows XP (service Pack 3)】否则,安装过程中安装程序会误判我的32位机为64位机,而我选择的确是32位的安装程序,导致直接退出安装。Next,在需要输入Lisence server 1(REQUIRED)时,输入27003@hostname(hostname为计算机全名),Server 2和Server 3可以不输入。
选择安装路径,F:\SIMULIA\Abaqus,
选择工作路径,F:\SIMULIA\temp
Next直至安装完成。
启动Abaqus CAE,先后看到命令提示符窗口和图形界面窗口,至此安装成功。


==================================================================


FLEXlm(Flexible License Manager)是目前市面上通用的軟體授權管理伺服器端軟體,事先在伺服器端載入數位授權檔,其他電腦只要連線到伺服器端拿取授權即可。

這裡用Altera Quartus II安裝光碟內提供的FLEXlm Server安裝擋為例,安裝檔解開後應該包含:
alterad.exe(Altera特有,其他廠商提供的不一定包含)
lmgrd.exe
lmtools.exe
lmutil.exe
mgcld.exe  

1.FLEXlm Server
1

將廠商提供的License轉存成.dat或.lic檔,FLEXlm Server只接受這兩種格式,放到和lmtools.exe同一個資料夾下。

License內容通常是經過加密,不過我們並不需要變動到授權內容,只要確認第一行SERVER的部份:

SERVER <host name> <8- or 12-character host or NIC ID> <port number>

其中host name為伺服器的IP位址或DNS,第二欄為伺服器網卡的MAC Address,port number可以隨便設定,只要不和目前使用的port衝突就好。

記下host name和port number,稍後會用到。

注意下一行VENDER的部份,如果廠商有提供檔案,以Altera為例,這一行就是:

VENDOR alterad <path to daemon executable>

<path to daemon executable>要改為alterad.exe的路徑,空一格再追加「PORT=你要用的PORT(建議為SEVER那一行所設定的PORT再加1)」。假設SERVER那一段PORT為1800,檔案全部放在「c:\flexlm」下,完成結果是:

VENDOR alterad c:\flexlm\alterad.exe PORT=1801

2.啟動lmtools.exe
2

這是FLEXlm的主畫面,請直接點選到Config Service的部份。

3.Config Service
3

將Service Name預設的文字刪除(預設是Borrowing),改成你要的文字,其他設定項可以參考上圖填入。

將"Use Service"打勾,並且點選"Save Service"來完成設定。

4.Save Service
4

選擇"是(Y)",即可儲存剛才設定的內容。

5.Start/Stop/Restart Server
5

設定完成後,選擇"Start/Stop/Restart"分頁,會有剛才儲存的設定名稱。將使用的設定反白,選擇"Start Server"即可啟動。

將先前記下的host name和port number,以「PORT@IP」的格式,輸入到需要取得授權的軟體(例如Quartus II),按下Enter後即可透過網路取得授權。

以Altera Quartus II為例:
將原本儲存License File路徑的部份,改填入 「PORT@IP」,按下Enter,軟體會向伺服器拿取授權。

參考資料:
Installing FLEXlm server and client license software

How to combine Autodesk products with non-Autodesk products already using FLEXnet

Apr 10, 2014

Issue:

You want to set up the Autodesk Network License Manager with the license manager of another vendor that also uses FLEXnet technology.

Solution:

With FLEXnet license management technology, you can administer licenses from more than one vendor. This is done by configuring a separate service for each vendor’s daemon with the LMTOOLS utility. The Network License Manager has three main components:

  • The FLEXnet license manager master daemon (lmgrd.exe).
  • The vendor daemon (the Autodesk vendor daemon is adskflex.exe).
  • The license file, which is obtained from each vendor.

To set up network licensing for two or more products:

  1. Install the Autodesk Network License Manager.
  2. Install the other license managers as instructed by that vendor.
  3. Specify a unique port for each service in the license file.
  4. Configure and start the Autodesk service.
  5. Configure and start other vendors one at a time.

Note: Make sure you back up all license files before you begin this procedure.

Installing the License Managers

For information about installing the Autodesk Network License Manager, refer to the Network Licensing Guide. For information about installing another vendor’s license manager, refer to that vendor's documentation.

Specify a Port for each Vendor’s Service

Specifying a port for each vendor will help to avoid conflicts if the license server is restarted. To specify a port, you will need to modify the license file provided to you by the vendor:

  1. Using Notepad or another text editor (do not use Microsoft Word), open the license file and append a port to the SERVER line of the license file.
     
    The top line of a license file contains the server hostname and host id. You can append a specific port to the end of this line. For example:

    de style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: Consolas, 'Liberation Mono', Courier, monospace; font-weight: bold; color: rgb(127, 10, 12);" >SERVER servername1 123456abcdef 27001 de>
     
    In this example, the hostname is servername1, the host id is 123456abcdef, and the port is 27001. The default ports are 27000-27009.
     
  2. Save the changes to the license file.

Note: Specifying a port outside of the 27000-27009 range should be avoided unless the vendor specifies that a particular port outside of the range should be used instead.

Configure the FLEXnet License Service for your Autodesk products

  1. In the LMTOOLS utility, click the Config Services tab.
  2. In the Service Name text box, enter a service name, such as “Autodesk”.
  3. Browse to the location of the lmgrd.exe file.
  4. Browse to the location of the Autodesk license file (the vendor daemon is specified in the license file).
  5. Browse to the location of the FLEXnet debug log file. To create the debug log file, browse to the folder where you want to place the debug log file and type debug.log in the File Name field.
  6. Select the Use Services and Start Server at Power Up check boxes.
  7. To save the Autodesk service, ensure that the correct service name is in the Service Name field. Do not save the Autodesk service under the name of the other vendor.
  8. Click Save.
  9. Click Yes to confirm that you are saving the service with the correct name.

Start the FLEXnet License Service for your Autodesk product

  1. In the LMTOOLS utility, click the Start/Stop/Reread tab.
  2. Click Start Server.
  3. Click the Server Status tab.
  4. Click Perform Status Inquiry to confirm that the Autodesk service has started and licenses have been issued.

Configure the FLEXnet License Service for the other vendor(s)

  1. In the LMTOOLS utility, click the Configure Services tab.
  2. On the Configure Services tab, browse to the location of lmgrd.exe that was installed by that vendor’s installation.
  3. Browse to the location of the other vendor’s license file.
  4. Browse to the location of the FLEXnet debug log file. Specify a file name that is different from the Autodesk service.
  5. Select the Use Services and Start Server at Power Up check boxes.
  6. To save the other vendor’s service, make sure that the correct service name is in the Service Name field. Do not save it with the same name as the Autodesk service. 
  7. Click Save.
  8. Click Yes to confirm that you are saving the service with the correct name.

Start the Other Vendor’s License Server

To start the license server, either restart the server, or follow the steps below:

  1. In the LMTOOLS utility, on the Configure Services tab, select the FLEXnet license service that you would like to start.
  2. On the Start/Stop/Reread tab, click Start Server. The license service will typically start in 10-20 seconds.
  3. If you would like to start the other service, repeat Steps 1 and 2 for that service.

作者  | 2015-1-3 10:59:42 | 阅读(27) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

三角帆船逆风行驶的原理是什么 ?

2014-12-24 12:33:03 阅读33 评论0 242014/12 Dec24

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqwb4HIrORM
手挤西瓜子的比喻很形象
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqwb4HIrORM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FtStbx08PLE#t=43
 

   2011「帆船的物理」中文介紹:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRTT9D6cPqo

    
2011「帆船的物理」英文介紹:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jrvYS5lpNgQ


http://www2.nsysu.edu.tw/physdemo-kh/2012/A6/A6.php


三角帆船逆风行驶的原理是什么?

逆风行船的操作在于将船身调整至与风向大约成45度角,而帆的位置正好平分风向与船的龙骨间构成的夹角.
公元886年,出现了可逆风行驶的三角帆船。据说,这种帆船是东印度群岛人发明的,帆呈三角形。与横帆不同的是,它可以在船的横位上做幅度大得多的转向,甚至可以与船的长轴成一线,有人称之为纵帆船。纵帆船逆风行驶时,先向一方转,然后再转向另一方,象盘山公路一样沿“之”字型蜿蜒向上。

根据空气动力学原理,流体速度增加,压力就会减低。空气要绕过向外弯曲的帆面,必须加快速度,于是压力减小,产生吸力,把船帆扯向一边。船帆背风一面因压力降低而产生的吸力相当大,可比迎风一面把帆推动的力量大1倍。
  风在帆两侧产生的吸力和推力,使船侧向行驶;但中插板阻止船侧向行驶,于是,风力分解为两个分力,一个分力推动帆船向前行驶,另一个分力则使船向背风一面倾侧,要由帆舵手在船的另一边探身出外,保持平衡。
  帆船不能完全正面顶着风航行。一艘长12米的帆船可与风向成12-15度的夹角逆风行驶。如果要正面迎着风的方向前进,必须以“之”字形路线航行。逆风行驶时,船与风向的夹角越小,速度越慢。舵手若以角度较大的“之”字形路线航行,船速会加快,不过航程会更长。

作者  | 2014-12-24 12:33:03 | 阅读(33) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

极点 零点 的概念

2014-12-23 2:29:02 阅读34 评论0 232014/12 Dec23

模拟集成电路基础   李金平 


Solving Op Amp Stability Issues

http://e2e.ti.com/support/amplifiers/precision_amplifiers/w/design_notes/2645.solving-op-amp-stability-issues

Updated 10/13/2014

PART 1: 4064.Solving Op Amp Stability 2014_Part 1.pptx

http://e2e.ti.com/cfs-file.ashx/__key/communityserver-wikis-components-files/00-00-00-00-07/4064.Solving-Op-Amp-Stability-2014_5F00_Part-1.pptx

PART 2: 2514.Solving Op Amp Stability 2014_Part 2.pptx

http://e2e.ti.com/cfs-file.ashx/__key/communityserver-wikis-components-files/00-00-00-00-07/2514.Solving-Op-Amp-Stability-2014_5F00_Part-2.pptx

PART 3: 8203.Solving Op Amp Stability 2014_Part 3.pptx

http://e2e.ti.com/cfs-file.ashx/__key/communityserver-wikis-components-files/00-00-00-00-07/8203.Solving-Op-Amp-Stability-2014_5F00_Part-3.pptx

PART 4: 2766.Solving Op Amp Stability 2014_Part 4.pptx

http://e2e.ti.com/cfs-file.ashx/__key/communityserver-wikis-components-files/00-00-00-00-07/2766.Solving-Op-Amp-Stability-2014_5F00_Part-4.pptx


http://www.edaboard.com/thread126710.html
28th May 2008, 15:03#3
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poles vs frequency

Hi alexang1983,

I?ll try to give you some background information:

For several reasons it is useful to introduce a complex frequency variable s=σ+jω.
(For example, the LAPLACE transformation requires an additional real part of the frequnecy variable).
But, at the same time, it is important to realize that in reality (measurements) only the imaginary part of s can be created as an input for real circuits. 

But, nevertheless, some parameters based on the definition of the complex frequency s are easily measured (for example pole frequency fP and pole quality Qp).
Both parameters are defined in the complex frequency plane by plotting the real and imaginary parts of the "pole" Sp. This "pole" Sp is simply the s-value for which the denominator of the transfer function goes to zero.

Some textbooks and other papers present a 3D picture where the transfer function magnitude is plotted in the complex plane as a function of σ and ω.

And the connection to the real world consists of a cut through this 3D plot at σ=0 (that is along the imaginary axis). Then, you get a curve which is identical to the measured response in the frequency domain.
Any further question ?

1 members found this post helpful.









http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/cn/AppNotes/00723A_CN.pdf


25th March 2009, 16:48#4
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frequency of a pole

Hi LvW,

I think I get what you explained about the relation between the real world and the complex frequency variable s.

However if I have a transfer function which exhibits a second order polynom D at the denominator. We suppose the roots of D are complex. If we run a "pen and paper" analysis and we find the expression of poles. 

Does the complex modulus of the poles refers to the value of the frequencies that we can observe on a Bode plot ?

Thank you for your help.







http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Bode/Bode.html

25th March 2009, 17:08#5
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pole frequency wiki

Quote Originally Posted by Polakrun
Hi LvW,
......................
Does the complex modulus of the poles refers to the value of the frequencies that we can observe on a Bode plot ?
Yes, the magnitude of the complex pole (the distance of the pole location from the center of the plane), which is the square root from (σ?+ω?) is the so called pole frequency. This parameter can be found in the Bode plot of a second order system at that point where the phase is identical to -90 deg.
This frequency is - depending on the pole Qp - not very far from the 3-dB-frequency.
For one specific case with Qp=0.7071 (Butterworth) both are identical.







----













25th March 2009, 21:34#7
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location of complex pole in frequency domain

Quote Originally Posted by Polakrun
Thank you for your quick answer.
However your answer make me wonder about the position of the pole :
This parameter can be found in the Bode plot of a second order system at that point where the phase is identical to -90 deg
Isn't it when the phase is -45 deg ?
And can you confirm the following precision which I've forgotten in my first post : you need to divide the complex modulus of the pole by 2 if you want the frequency otherwise you have the pulsation ?
Why do you think 45 deg ?
The proof is simple: At w=wp only the middle term of the denominator of the transfer function remains, which is pure imaginary. Thus, with A/j=-A*j >> A*exp(-90 deg).
As to your second question: The term wp normally is called pole frequency and the unit is rad/sec. Of course, if you like to have it in Hz you have to divide by 2*Pi.

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  1. 26th March 2009, 11:23#8
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    bode plot complex pole positions

    Hi LvW,

    I explain you what I mean with -45° on the phase with the following example : 
    Let's take a second order system defined by

    If I search the transfer function I find 

    So we have a second order transfer function and with the values specified on the schematics we get :
    fpole1=1.99KHz
    fpole2=3.40MHz
    The Bode plot of the ac analysis give us the following trace :

    (I attached the bitmap version of the trace)

    When I look at the trace, the first pole occurs when the phase is -45° and the second one when the phase is -135°. Here is my justification.

    If I were wrong in my analysis, don't hesitate to tell me.

    Thank you.

    Pawel

    P.S: the simulation is run with LTspiceIV

  2. 26th March 2009, 12:10#9
    LvW 
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    pole frequency -3db

    Hi polakrun,

    it happens not very often - however, in this case both of us are right.

    In your first message (25th) you spoke about a COMPLEX pole - and my answer was of course related to your question. And for a complex pole pair we have only one "pole frequency" (magnitude of the vector to the pole location); and my last answer is correct by 100%.

    However, if both poles of a second order function (as in your last example) are REAL, then they appear in the BODE diagram separately and we have two DIFFERENT pole frequencies. And each pole frequency is connected with different phase shifts.
    But for the first pole it is NOT 45 deg but something more - depending on the distance to the second pole. If it is very far (as in your case) it has only minor influence - and the phase is perhaps -45.5 deg. But if the 2nd pole is rather close to the first one, the phase shift gets larger. OK ?

















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27th March 2009, 12:29#11
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magnitude of the pole frequency

Hi LvW,

I agree with the fact that
But for the first pole it is NOT 45 deg but something more - depending on the distance to the second pole. If it is very far (as in your case) it has only minor influence - and the phase is perhaps -45.5 deg. But if the 2nd pole is rather close to the first one, the phase shift gets larger. OK ?
However let me show you an other example : let's take an RC dephasor schematics

I get the following transfer function

We can see that this is a third order denominator. I apply the value of the componants to this transfer function and solve the third order polynom, I obtain:
s1=-4.6924e+005 +2.2296e-006i
s2=-2.4068e+007 -4.2841e-008i
s3=-9.4449e+003 -2.1867e-006i
Now I take the modulus divided by 2pi of these three complex roots, it gives:
f1=abs(s1)/s1=7.4682e+004
f2=abs(s2)/s2=3.8305e+006
f3=abs(s3)/s3=1.5032e+003
And if you look at the Bode plot of the ac analysis

I just put the cursor on the first two values and we observe again that the phase shift is not exactly -45deg and -135deg but it is around these values.

To emphasize my analysis, let's take a simple low pass filter:
The transfer function is . For the phase,. So if we are at  then . Thus the frequency when a pole occurs corresponds to a phase shift of 45 deg. 

Thank you for the interest you have in this topic, it makes my mind clear about some points.

Pawel

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--------------------
一、 傳遞函數中的零點和極點的物理意義: 零點:當系統輸入幅度不為零且輸入頻率使系統輸出為零時,此輸入頻率值即為零點。 極點:當系統輸入幅度不為零且輸入頻率使系統輸出為無窮大(系統穩定破壞,發生振盪)時,此頻率值即為極點。 舉例:有時你家音響或電視機殼發出一陣陣尖厲嘶嘶聲,此時聰明的你定會知道機殼螺絲鬆了,擰緊螺絲噪聲問題就解決了。其實,你所做的就是極點補償,擰緊螺 絲——你大大降低了系統極點頻率。當然此處系統是指機械振動系統不是電路系統,但系統原理一樣。 拋磚引玉爾。希望更多答案。(這一段有待討論)
二、,每一個極點之處,增益衰減-3db, 並移相-45度。極點之後每十倍頻,增益下降20db.零點與極點相反,在零點之處,增益增加3db,並移相45度。零點之後,每十倍頻,增益增加20db.
http://blog.xuite.net/chenni037/food/56114933-%5B%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%5D%E6%A5%B5%E9%BB%9E%E8%88%87%E9%9B%B6%E9%BB%9E

http://www.wlxt.uestc.edu.cn/wlxt/ncourse/mndl/web/wlxt/examAnswer/chapter6.htm
http://ezphysics.nchu.edu.tw/prophys/electron/lecturenote/11_1.pdf

http://www.ti.com.tw/articles/detail.asp?sno=81
http://educypedia.karadimov.info/library/acqt0131.pdf
http://www.eet-china.com/ARTICLES/2006JUL/PDF/DW200672502.pdf?SOURCES=DOWNLOAD

http://www.edaboard.com/thread125950-2.html
http://www.edaboard.com/thread126710.html

http://blog.xuite.net/chenni037/food/56114933-%5B%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%5D%E6%A5%B5%E9%BB%9E%E8%88%87%E9%9B%B6%E9%BB%9E


1.由於在CMOS裡面一般柵端到地的電容較大,所以一般人們就去取這個極點,也就是說 

輸入信號頻率使得節點到地的阻抗無窮大(也就是所謂的1/RC)R為到的電阻,C為到地的電容(並聯產生極點) 

零點在CMOS中往往是由於信號通路上的電容產生的,即使的信號到地的阻抗為0, 

在密勒補償中,不只是將主極點向裡推,將次極點向外推(增大了電容),同時還產生了一個零點(與第三極點頻率接近), 

只不過人們一般只關心前者。 

2.經驗上來講,放大器電路中高阻抗的節點都要注意,即使這點上電容很小,都會產生一個很大的極點。零點一般就不那麼直觀了,通常如果兩路out of phase的信號相交就會產生零點,但這不能解釋所有的零點。 

3.個人覺得零點、極點只是電路分析中抽象出來的輔助方法,可以通過零極點分析電路動作特徵,然而既然有抽象肯定有它的物理表現,極點從波特圖上看兩個 作用:延時和降低增益,在反饋系統中作用就是降低反饋信號幅度以及反饋回去的時間,所以如果某個節點存在對地電容,必然會對電容充電,同時電容和前級輸出 電阻還存在分壓,所以這個電容會產生極點!而要保持穩定,則要看在激勵情況下反饋信號會不會持續增加?而這就需要分析信號在通過電路的過程中的衰減或增加 和加快或者減慢,零極點這就表徵了電路的這種特性,所以可能某個節點會產生極點,也可能整個系統不同信號通路相互作用產生零極點。 

俺也談談我的看法: 

1。零/極點的產生與反饋與否似乎沒有直接聯繫。一個電路的小信號模型中存在某一個節點,這個節點有兩條通路與其他節點連接,其中一條通路為電容,另一 條為電阻。那麼這個節點的電壓為零就可能是此電路的解,電阻那條通路的電流情況就有兩種:1是流進,在這種情況下就會產生一個負極點,因為只有在頻率為「 負」的情況下,電容通路才會有電流流出使得流進/出此節點的電流相等;2是沒有電流,意思就是通過電阻與此連接的節點也是個零點,當然也可能是地,這樣就 啥都沒了。其實還有一種情況是電阻被一個理想電流源代替,那麼相比前面提到的情況就多了一種,那就是有電流流出,這樣就產生一個正零點,這就是我們在普通 兩級amp中正零點一樣。 

2。這個問題似乎並不重要,因為對於一個稍微複雜的電路,要直觀的看出其非主零/極點是很不容易的,通過電路的小信號來計算傳遞函數是個不錯的方法。 

5說說我的理解: 

一般地,零點可以增加增益,極點減少增益,而我們在反饋的時候,是希望在相位下降到180度之前,增益就已經降低到一,所以我們需要消除一個零點,以免發生震盪 

6. 

1. a zero means there is a null effect for the signal going through. While a pole means there is a boosting effect for teh signal going through. 

2. Pole and Zero actually is not always Pole or Zero because they can be exchanged depending on feedback and also depending on which point you are looking from(e.g. zero at open loop and will be pole at close loop 





3. So please do not confused by them. Also treat the circuit as a path which signal goes in or comes out. Actually, Pole and Zero concept is just a mathematical point of view. The true meaning is how signal responds when its frequecny approaches them.



作者  | 2014-12-23 2:29:02 | 阅读(34) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

How ENTJs Might Irritate Others

2014-12-21 19:11:22 阅读22 评论0 212014/12 Dec21

  • Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through)
  • iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts)
  • Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values)
  • Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

If your closest personality type is ENTJ then you are looking to develop a better structure and organisation in the way things are done. You tend to control life by organising systems and people to meet task oriented goals, but you also have one eye on the future and are looking for a process of continuous improvement. You like to work with competent people who, being in the right roles, have the appropriate skills both to do their job and implement the improvements you envisage.




http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/personality/types/entj/dominant/


Careers for ENTJ Personality Types

Whether you're a young adult trying to find your place in the world, or a not-so-young adult trying to find out if you're moving along the right path, it's important to understand yourself and the personality traits which will impact your likeliness to succeed or fail at various careers. It's equally important to understand what is really important to you. When armed with an understanding of your strengths and weaknesses, and an awareness of what you truly value, you are in an excellent position to pick a career which you will find rewarding.

ENTJs generally have the following traits:

  • Driven to turn theories into plans
  • Highly value knowledge
  • Future-oriented
  • Natural leaders
  • Impatient with inefficiency and incompetence
  • Want things structured and orderly
  • Excellent verbal communication skills
  • Dislike routine, detail-oriented tasks
  • Self-confident
  • Decisive

ENTJs are especially well-suited to be leaders and organization builders. They have the ability to clearly identify problems and innovative solutions for the short and long-term well-being of an organization. Having a strong desire to lead, they're not likely to be happy as followers. ENTJs like to be in charge, and need to be in charge to take advantage of their special capabilities.

The following list of professions is built on our impressions of careers which would be especially suitable for an ENTJ. It is meant to be a starting place, rather than an exhaustive list. There are no guarantees that any or all of the careers listed here would be appropriate for you, or that your best career match is among those listed.

Possible Career Paths for the ENTJ:
 
   Corporate Executive Officer; Organization Builder
   Entrepreneur
   Computer Consultant
   Lawyer
   Judge
   Business Administrators and Managers
   University Professors and Administrators



Each personality type can potentially irritate other people in their own particular way.

How ENTJs Might Irritate Others

The potential ways in which an ENTJ can irritate others include taking control when it is their role to do so, issuing directives sometimes without explaining the reasons why, and dominating the team. Also, if you are in charge, you may not take sufficient account of others' feelings, and drive the team too hard. There may also be a possibility that you decide too quickly, without sufficient consultation with others, and don't take sufficient account of current realities. As a result you may end up introducing too much change, rather than leaving well-established, workable routines alone.

How To Improve Relationships

You can overcome personality type differences by learning about your similarities and differences with other people. This leads to greater understanding, appreciation, and respect. Also, if you learn to adapt your style this will make you more influential and respected.

There is a comprehensive guide on how to do this in the book Influencing People Using Myers Briggs. This is available as an option when you complete the personality test.




ENTJ Careers, Jobs, Majors, & Holland Code

By Dr. A.J. Drenth

ENTJs are bold, intelligent, and hard-driving leaders. They are your quintessential CEOs, fieldmarshalls, and “Type-A” personalities. Given sufficient intellect and ambition, ENTJs will rise to upper-tier leadership positions in any number of jobs and careers.

ENTJs take their lives and their work quite seriously, typically preferring work over play. Their dominant function is Extraverted Thinking (Te), the primary aim of which involves making the external world more rational, efficient, and organized. As for INTJ career-seekers, Te confers a great advantage for ENTJs when it comes to job and career choices, since the modern working world is in many ways a Te sort of system. Namely, to swim in the sea of modern work, one must understand and be willing to navigate an intricate web of rules, procedures and bureaucracy. In general, Ti types (i.e., TPs) are less equipped for and less tolerant of Te systems. For ENTJs, however, navigating Te systems is their bread and butter, their primary playground. And since Te systems can be found anywhere, from business, to science, to academia, ENTJs have virtually infinite career options at their disposal.

ENTJs’ auxiliary function, Introverted Intuition (Ni), lends a visionary element. While typically not as developed as that of INTJs, Ni helps see the bigger picture and to synthesize ample amounts of data. Ni also confers a sense of confidence and conviction, contributing to ENTJs’ aura of strength, confidence, and decisiveness.

ENTJs’ tertiary function, Extraverted Sensing (Se), is important to the extent that it drives ENTJs to seek and value material wealth. Money and prestige can be a motivating factor for many ENTJs, fueling their desire to rise to the top of whatever ladder they are climbing. INTJs can display similar inclinations in this regard.

ENTJs’ inferior function, Introverted Feeling (Fi), may impel them to work toward causes they feel are important and valuable. If they allow their Fi too much say, however, they may take up careers or majors that are ill-suited for the signature strengths, namely, those of their Te. For instance, while working with disadvantaged children is certainly a noble pursuit, this sort of work would place far too much emphasis on ENTJs’ Fi and far too little on their Te. They would likely be better off running an organization whose aim was to help needy children rather than directly involving themselves in the actual helping.

ENTJ Holland Career Interests/Code

The Holland Career Interest Inventory is one of the better career tools available. It includes six interest domains—Realistic (R), Investigative (I), Artistic (A), Social (S), Enterprising (E), Conventional (C)—collectively known as “RIASEC.” Once an individual has identified his top two or three interest domains, the letters can be combined to form a two or three letter Holland code (e.g., ISA, ASI) which can then be matched with the codes of various careers or college majors. For an overview of the Holland as it relates to the Myers-Briggs types, see my post, Holland Code (RIASEC) Career Interests & Myers-Briggs Types.

Realistic

The Realistic interest domain is associated with Myers-Briggs Thinking, Extraverted Sensing, as well as the Perceiving preference. Hence, STPs are the types most apt to display strong Realistic interests.

As Thinking types, some ENTJs may exhibit some degree of Realistic interests, although this is typically not their strongest interest domain. Nonetheless, the following Realistic careers/majors may be well-suited for ENTJs:

? Computer science, systems analyst, informatics, programmer
? Engineering (all types)
? Urban planning

Investigative

The Investigative domain can also be associated with Myers-Briggs Thinking, as well as Intuition to a certain extent. Therefore, it tends to be among the top domains for ENTJs.

Since ENTJs use Te rather than Ti, they often display strong interests in formal scientific research and development. However, as Extraverts, they are generally ill-suited for perching in a laboratory all day. Most would prefer functioning as chief investigator on scientific projects or heading up their own R & D company.

Medical and pharmaceutical research would also fall under the Investigative domain, as would work as a doctor/physician. All of these are solid careers for ENTJs, since modern medicine has been built around Te models with respect to research, diagnosis, and treatment.

? Actuary
? Astronomy/astronomer
? Biochemistry,biology, chemistry, neuroscience
? Economics /economist
? Financial planning/analyst
? Health/medical sciences, public health
? Researcher
? Social science research (psychology, sociology, political science)
? Physician, medical doctor: most specialties
? Physics/physicist

Artistic

While ENTJs may appreciate the arts, very few can be considered true artists. True artists are typically N dominants or F types. Thinking, especially Extraverted Thinking, is far too pragmatic a function to be concerned with the divergent, impractical ways of the arts. So while ENTJs may appreciate the arts, artistic work would typically not constitute their ideal career.

Social

The Social interest domain is populated by teachers, caretakers, healthcare workers, clergy, and trainers, most of whom are Myers-Briggs Feeling types. Because of their inferior Fi, some ENTJs may be drawn to certain Social careers. However, as suggested earlier, such careers can end up being a poor fit if ENTJs are regularly forced to rely on their Fi rather than Te. Although there are relatively few good Social career options for ENTJs, becoming a lecturer/college professor is probably a good option.

Enterprising

The Enterprising domain involves the promotion of products, ideas, or services. Typical Enterprising careers include sales and marketing, business and management, law, politics, journalism, insurance, and stock trading. Enterprising individuals often prefer Extraversion.

ENTJs are naturally Enterprising. They are self-starters, good salespersons, and excel with business and management. They can also make excellent attorneys and entrepreneurs.

? Entrepreneur
? Corporate manager, executive
? Law, lawyer, attorney
? Politician

Conventional

Persons with Conventional interests typically enjoy administrative work. They do well with manipulating data and are organized and detail-oriented. Those in this domain often prefer Sensing, Thinking, and/or Judging.

As TJ types, ENTJs are generally quite competent in attending to the details associated with Conventional work. They often enjoy working with numbers and data. But despite their competence this domain, this is rarely their preferred interest domain.

On the whole, ENTJs display strongest interest in the Investigative and Enterprising domains, preferring careers with IE or EI Holland codes.

You can learn more about ENTJs in Dr. Drenth’s latest eBooks:

My True Type: Clarifying Your Personality Type, Preferences & Functions

The 16 Personality Types: Profiles, Theory, & Type Development

作者  | 2014-12-21 19:11:22 | 阅读(22) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

The Scanning Electron Microscope

2014-12-5 10:07:09 阅读30 评论0 52014/12 Dec5


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GY9lfO-tVfE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdjYVF4a6iU


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vty_-qKUzU&list=PLBc3XCOs_fk1MvBs7_VCQfp0J6yrQP_p_

作者  | 2014-12-5 10:07:09 | 阅读(30) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

Harmonic_oscillator

2014-12-2 14:23:08 阅读28 评论0 22014/12 Dec2


Simple harmonic oscillator[edit]

Main article: Simple harmonic motion
Simple harmonic motion

A simple harmonic oscillator is an oscillator that is neither driven nor damped. It consists of a mass m, which experiences a single force, F, which pulls the mass in the direction of the point x=0 and depends only on the mass's position x and a constant k. Balance of forces (Newton's second law) for the system is

F = m a = m \frac{\mathrm{d}^2x}{\mathrm{d}t^2} = -k x.

Solving this differential equation, we find that the motion is described by the function

 x(t) = A\cos\left( \omega t+\phi\right),

where

\omega = \sqrt{\frac{k}{m}} = \frac{2\pi}{T}.

The motion is periodic, repeating itself in a sinusoidal fashion with constant amplitude, A. In addition to its amplitude, the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is characterized by its period T, the time for a single oscillation or its frequency f = 1?T, the number of cycles per unit time. The position at a given time t also depends on the phaseφ, which determines the starting point on the sine wave. The period and frequency are determined by the size of the mass m and the force constant k, while the amplitude and phase are determined by the starting position andvelocity.

The velocity and acceleration of a simple harmonic oscillator oscillate with the same frequency as the position but with shifted phases. The velocity is maximum for zero displacement, while the acceleration is in the opposite direction as the displacement.

The potential energy stored in a simple harmonic oscillator at position x is

U = \frac{1}{2}kx^2.

作者  | 2014-12-2 14:23:08 | 阅读(28) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

DD-WRT: Flashing with Command Line

2014-11-30 18:51:33 阅读27 评论0 302014/11 Nov30

Flashing with Command Line

 
1. Telnet or ssh into DD-WRT.

2. Download the firmware to the router's /tmp directory with wget or scp.

cd /tmp
wget ftp://yourFTPserverIP/trusted.bin
 
3. Compare the MD5 checksum of the original and the downloaded file.

md5sum trusted.bin
Write the firmware to flash.

5. write trusted.bin linux
6. Wait...

Reboot

7. Restore factory defaults using erase nvram command or reset button

作者  | 2014-11-30 18:51:33 | 阅读(27) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

TP-LINK WR 941nd v3.2 被砖以后怎么办? 波特率怎么选?

2014-11-30 11:57:14 阅读39 评论0 302014/11 Nov30

115200, 8,  none, 1, none
------------------------------------------------------
选小了是乱码。

 U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds## Booting image at bf020000 ...
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... Error: Bad gzipped data
GUNZIP ERROR - must RESET board to recover

Resetting...U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds
=================================================
  在这里狂按   tpl [enter],   tpl [enter],   tpl [enter],  tpl [enter],   得到以下的提示符
Autobooting in 1 secondsar7100>
ar7100>
ar7100>

 
ar7100>

===============================================================
    下载  DD-wrt  的 Reversal ROM / |Firmware  
ar7100> setenv serverip 192.168.1.2; setenv ipaddr 192.168.1.1
ar7100> printenv bootcmd
bootcmd=bootm 0xbf020000
ar7100> tftp 0x80800000 dd.bin
set link to 100M full by lqm.
dup 1 speed 100
Using eth0 device
TFTP from server 192.168.1.2; our IP address is 192.168.1.1
Filename 'dd.bin'.
Load address: 0x80800000
Loading: checksum bad
checksum bad
checksum bad
#################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         ######################################################
done
Bytes transferred = 3932160 (3c0000 hex)
ar7100> erase.b 0xbf020000 +0x3c0000

First 0x2 last 0x3d sector size 0x10000
  61
Erased 60 sectors
ar7100> cp.b 0x80800000 0xbf020000 0x3c0000
Copy to Flash... write addr: bf020000
done
ar7100> reset.

U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds## Booting image at bf020000 ...
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK

Starting kernel ...



OpenWrt kernel loader for AR7XXX/AR9XXX
Copyright (C) 2011 Gabor Juhos <juhosg@openwrt.org>
Decompressing kernel...
done!
Starting kernel...

[    0.000000] flash_size passed from bootloader = 1615
[    0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled
[    0.000000] booting platform Atheros AR9132 rev 2 (0xb9)
[    0.000000] Determined physical RAM map:
[    0.000000]  memory: 02000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
[    0.000000] Zone ranges:
[    0.000000]   Normal   [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[    0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[    0.000000]   node   0: [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Primary instruction cache 64kB, 4-way, VIPT, I-cache aliases, lin
esize 32 bytes.
[    0.000000] Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 32
bytes
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.5.7 (root@dd-wrt) (gcc version 4.7.3 20121205 (pr
erelease) (Linaro GCC 4.7-2012.12) ) #6147 Mon Mar 25 08:49:28 CET 2013
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pag
es: 8128
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 root=1f02 rootfstype=sq
uashfs noinitrd init=/sbin/init
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 128 (order: -3, 512 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.000000] __ex_table already sorted, skipping sort
[    0.000000] Writing ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Readback ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Memory: 29492k/32768k available (2131k kernel code, 3276k reserve
d, 389k data, 156k init, 0k highmem)
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:80
[    0.000000] irq init done
[    0.000000] plat_time_init: plat time init done
[    0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 265.42 BogoMIPS (lpj=1327104)
[    0.080000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.080000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
[    0.090000] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.110000] bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
[    0.120000] Switching to clocksource MIPS
[    0.130000] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.130000] IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.130000] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.150000] TCP: reno registered
[    0.150000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.170000] gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/gpio/ created
[    0.180000] Register LED Device
[    0.180000] wl0gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/wl0gpio/ created
[    0.190000] AR7100 GPIOC major 0
[    0.190000] squashfs: version 3.0 (2006/03/15) Phillip Lougher
[    0.200000] msgmni has been set to 57
[    0.200000] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.200000] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[    0.210000] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 1 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
[    0.240000] serial8250.0: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x18020000 (irq = 19) is a 16550A
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.260000] guessed flashsize = 4M
[    0.260000] scanning for root partition
[    0.260000] tplink uboot detected
[    0.270000] bootloader size = 20000
[    0.280000]
[    0.280000] found squashfs at 110000
[    0.280000] Creating 8 MTD partitions on "ar7100-nor0":
[    0.290000] 0x000000000000-0x000000020000 : "RedBoot"
[    0.290000] 0x000000020000-0x0000003e0000 : "linux"
[    0.300000] 0x000000110000-0x0000003e0000 : "rootfs"
[    0.310000] mtd: partition "rootfs" set to be root filesystem
[    0.310000] 0x0000003e0000-0x000000400000 : "ddwrt"
[    0.320000] 0x0000003e0000-0x0000003f0000 : "nvram"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "FIS directory"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "board_config"
[    0.340000] 0x000000000000-0x000000400000 : "fullflash"
[    0.350000] ->Oops: flash id 0xef4016 .
[    0.350000] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
[    0.360000] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <maxk@qualcomm.com>
[    0.360000] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[    0.370000] PPP BSD Compression module registered
[    0.370000] PPP Deflate Compression module registered
[    0.380000] PPP MPPE Compression module registered
[    0.380000] NET: Registered protocol family 24
[    0.400000] u32 classifier
[    0.400000]     Performance counters on
[    0.400000]     input device check on
[    0.410000]     Actions configured
[    0.410000] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (460 buckets, 1840 max)
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] nf_nat_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    0.440000] IPP2P v0.8.2 loading
[    0.440000] TCP: westwood registered
[    0.440000] TCP: hybla registered
[    0.450000] TCP: vegas registered
[    0.450000] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    0.450000] Bridge firewalling registered
[    0.460000] 8021q: 802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8
[    0.460000] searching for nvram
[    0.470000] nvram size = 0
[    0.520000] Broken NVRAM found, recovering it (Magic FFFFFFFF)
[    0.530000] Atheros AR71xx hardware watchdog driver version 0.1.0
[    0.530000] ar71xx-wdt: timeout=15 secs (max=42) ref freq=100000000
[    0.550000] VFS: Mounted root (squashfs filesystem) readonly on device 31:2.
[    0.550000] Freeing unused kernel memory: 156k freed
start service
starting Architecture code for ap83
starting hotplug
Jan  1 00:00:02 udevtrigger[221]: parse_config_file: can't open '/etc/udev/udev.
conf' as config file: No such file or directory
done
load ag71xx or ag7100_mod Ethernet Driver
[    3.530000] ag7100_mod: module license 'unspecified' taints kernel.
[    3.540000] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
[    3.580000] ag7100_mii: probed
[    3.580000] eth0: Marvell 88E6060 PHY driver attached.
configure eth0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
[    3.860000] Writing 4
configure vlan0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
configure vlan1 to 00:23:CD:20:A6:DF
load ATH 802.11 a/b/g Driver
[    3.950000] nf_conntrack: automatic helper assignment is deprecated and it wi
ll be removed soon. Use the iptables CT target to attach helpers instead.
load ATH9K 802.11n Driver
[    4.060000] Compat-drivers backport release: compat-drivers-2013-01-21-1
[    4.070000] Backport based on wireless-testing.git master-2013-02-22
[    4.070000] compat.git: wireless-testing.git
[    4.280000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
[    4.280000] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
[    4.290000] cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gai
n, max_eirp)
[    4.290000] cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.300000] cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.310000] cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.320000] cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.330000] cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    5.110000] ieee80211 phy0: Atheros AR9100 MAC/BB Rev:7 AR2133 RF Rev:a2 mem=
0xb80c0000, irq=2
[    5.130000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: US
[    5.130000] cfg80211: Regulatory domain changed to countr

[    9.080000] br0: port 1(vlan0) entered forwarding state
freq:2412 qual:93 noise:-95
freq:2417 qual:44 noise:-95
freq:2422 qual:56 noise:-95
freq:2427 qual:72 noise:-95
freq:2432 qual:47 noise:-95
freq:2437 qual:96 noise:-95
freq:2442 qual:47 noise:-95
freq:2447 qual:69 noise:-95
freq:2452 qual:69 noise:-95
freq:2457 qual:48 noise:-95
freq:2462 qual:92 noise:-95
mac80211autochannel interface: ath0 frequency: 2437
setup ath0 00:23:CD:20:A6:DE
[   10.580000] device ath0 entered promiscuous mode
[   10.590000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered forwarding state
[   10.590000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered forwarding state
[   11.390000] device vlan1 entered promiscuous mode
[   11.430000] device vlan1 left promiscuous mode
ath9k radio 1: phy0 ath0
SIOCGIFFLAGS: No such device
[   12.590000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered forwarding state
[   12.720000] etherip: Ethernet over IPv4 tunneling driver
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 03/25/13 (SVN revision: 21061)

DD-WRT login: root
Password:

Login incorrect

root
password = admin

==========================================================

 ____  ___    __        ______ _____         ____  _  _
 | _ \| _ \   \ \      / /  _ \_   _| __   _|___ \| || |
 || | || ||____\ \ /\ / /| |_) || |   \ \ / / __) | || |_
 ||_| ||_||_____\ V  V / |  _ < | |    \ V / / __/|__   _|
 |___/|___/      \_/\_/  |_| \_\|_|     \_/ |_____|  |_|

                       DD-WRT v24-sp2
                   http://www.dd-wrt.com

==========================================================
Jan  1 00:04:53 login[1144]: root login on 'console'


BusyBox v1.21.0 (2013-03-25 08:51:09 CET) built-in shell (ash)
Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.

root@DD-WRT:~#
root@DD-WRT:~# erase nvram
erase[65536]
root@DD-WRT:~# reboot
root@DD-WRT:~# Sending SIGTERM [  336.500000] ar71xx-wdt: device closed unexpect
edly, watchdog timer will not stop!
to all processes
[  336.520000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered disabled state
[  336.540000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered disabled state
Sending SIGKILL

U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds## Booting image at bf020000 ...
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK

Starting kernel ...



OpenWrt kernel loader for AR7XXX/AR9XXX
Copyright (C) 2011 Gabor Juhos <juhosg@openwrt.org>
Decompressing kernel...
done!
Starting kernel...

[    0.000000] flash_size passed from bootloader = 1615
[    0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled
[    0.000000] booting platform Atheros AR9132 rev 2 (0xb9)
[    0.000000] Determined physical RAM map:
[    0.000000]  memory: 02000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
[    0.000000] Zone ranges:
[    0.000000]   Normal   [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[    0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[    0.000000]   node   0: [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Primary instruction cache 64kB, 4-way, VIPT, I-cache aliases, lin
esize 32 bytes.
[    0.000000] Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 32
bytes
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.5.7 (root@dd-wrt) (gcc version 4.7.3 20121205 (pr
erelease) (Linaro GCC 4.7-2012.12) ) #6147 Mon Mar 25 08:49:28 CET 2013
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pag
es: 8128
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 root=1f02 rootfstype=sq
uashfs noinitrd init=/sbin/init
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 128 (order: -3, 512 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.000000] __ex_table already sorted, skipping sort
[    0.000000] Writing ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Readback ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Memory: 29492k/32768k available (2131k kernel code, 3276k reserve
d, 389k data, 156k init, 0k highmem)
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:80
[    0.000000] irq init done
[    0.000000] plat_time_init: plat time init done
[    0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 265.42 BogoMIPS (lpj=1327104)
[    0.080000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.080000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
[    0.090000] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.110000] bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
[    0.120000] Switching to clocksource MIPS
[    0.130000] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.130000] IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.130000] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.150000] TCP: reno registered
[    0.150000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.170000] gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/gpio/ created
[    0.180000] Register LED Device
[    0.180000] wl0gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/wl0gpio/ created
[    0.190000] AR7100 GPIOC major 0
[    0.190000] squashfs: version 3.0 (2006/03/15) Phillip Lougher
[    0.200000] msgmni has been set to 57
[    0.200000] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.200000] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[    0.210000] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 1 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
[    0.240000] serial8250.0: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x18020000 (irq = 19) is a 16550A
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.260000] guessed flashsize = 4M
[    0.260000] scanning for root partition
[    0.260000] tplink uboot detected
[    0.270000] bootloader size = 20000
[    0.280000]
[    0.280000] found squashfs at 110000
[    0.280000] Creating 8 MTD partitions on "ar7100-nor0":
[    0.290000] 0x000000000000-0x000000020000 : "RedBoot"
[    0.290000] 0x000000020000-0x0000003e0000 : "linux"
[    0.300000] 0x000000110000-0x0000003e0000 : "rootfs"
[    0.310000] mtd: partition "rootfs" set to be root filesystem
[    0.310000] 0x0000003e0000-0x000000400000 : "ddwrt"
[    0.320000] 0x0000003e0000-0x0000003f0000 : "nvram"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "FIS directory"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "board_config"
[    0.340000] 0x000000000000-0x000000400000 : "fullflash"
[    0.350000] ->Oops: flash id 0xef4016 .
[    0.350000] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
[    0.360000] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <maxk@qualcomm.com>
[    0.360000] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[    0.370000] PPP BSD Compression module registered
[    0.370000] PPP Deflate Compression module registered
[    0.380000] PPP MPPE Compression module registered
[    0.380000] NET: Registered protocol family 24
[    0.400000] u32 classifier
[    0.400000]     Performance counters on
[    0.400000]     input device check on
[    0.410000]     Actions configured
[    0.410000] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (460 buckets, 1840 max)
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] nf_nat_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    0.440000] IPP2P v0.8.2 loading
[    0.440000] TCP: westwood registered
[    0.440000] TCP: hybla registered
[    0.450000] TCP: vegas registered
[    0.450000] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    0.450000] Bridge firewalling registered
[    0.460000] 8021q: 802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8
[    0.460000] searching for nvram
[    0.470000] nvram size = 0
[    0.520000] Broken NVRAM found, recovering it (Magic FFFFFFFF)
[    0.530000] Atheros AR71xx hardware watchdog driver version 0.1.0
[    0.530000] ar71xx-wdt: timeout=15 secs (max=42) ref freq=100000000
[    0.550000] VFS: Mounted root (squashfs filesystem) readonly on device 31:2.
[    0.550000] Freeing unused kernel memory: 156k freed
start service
starting Architecture code for ap83
starting hotplug
Jan  1 00:00:02 udevtrigger[221]: parse_config_file: can't open '/etc/udev/udev.
conf' as config file: No such file or directory
done
load ag71xx or ag7100_mod Ethernet Driver
[    3.530000] ag7100_mod: module license 'unspecified' taints kernel.
[    3.540000] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
[    3.580000] ag7100_mii: probed
[    3.580000] eth0: Marvell 88E6060 PHY driver attached.
configure eth0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
[    3.860000] Writing 4
configure vlan0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
[    3.910000] nf_conntrack: automatic helper assignment is deprecated and it wi
ll be removed soon. Use the iptables CT target to attach helpers instead.
configure vlan1 to 00:23:CD:20:A6:DF
load ATH 802.11 a/b/g Driver
load ATH9K 802.11n Driver
[    4.060000] Compat-drivers backport release: compat-drivers-2013-01-21-1
[    4.070000] Backport based on wireless-testing.git master-2013-02-22
[    4.070000] compat.git: wireless-testing.git
[    4.280000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
[    4.280000] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
[    4.290000] cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gai
n, max_eirp)
[    4.290000] cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.300000] cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.310000] cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.320000] cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.330000] cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    5.110000] ieee80211 phy0: Atheros AR9100 MAC/BB Rev:7 AR2133 RF Rev:a2 mem=
0xb80c0000, irq=2
[    5.130000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: US
[    5.130000] cfg80211: Regulatory domain changed to country
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 03/25/13 (SVN revision: 21061)

DD-WRT login:
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 03/25/13 (SVN revision: 21061)

DD-WRT login: [APPLY] index (null) (null)
submit_button=[index] submit_type=[changepass]
name=[index] type=[changepass] service=[] sleep=[1] action=[5]

Login timed out no valid redboot partition found
upgrade_ver[v62.1.0] upgrade_ver[620100] intel_ver[14108] 4712_ver[15000]
function stop_pppoeserver not found
function stop_openvpn not found
function stop_openvpnserver not found
function stop_freeradius not found
freeram=[13512704] bufferram=[2060288]
The free memory is enough, writing image once.
write=[3932160]
linux: CRC OK
Writing image to flash, waiting a moment...
write block [0] at [0x00000000]
write block [65536] at [0x00010000]
write block [131072] at [0x00020000]
write block [196608] at [0x00030000]
write block [262144] at [0x00040000]
write block [327680] at [0x00050000]
write block [393216] at [0x00060000]
write block [458752] at [0x00070000]
write block [524288] at [0x00080000]
write block [589824] at [0x00090000]
write block [655360] at [0x000A0000]
write block [720896] at [0x000B0000]
write block [786432] at [0x000C0000]
write block [851968] at [0x000D0000]
write block [917504] at [0x000E0000]
write block [983040] at [0x000F0000]
write block [1048576] at [0x00100000]
write block [1114112] at [0x00110000]
write block [1179648] at [0x00120000]
write block [1245184] at [0x00130000]
write block [1310720] at [0x00140000]
write block [1376256] at [0x00150000]
write block [1441792] at [0x00160000]
write block [1507328] at [0x00170000]
write block [1572864] at [0x00180000]
write block [1638400] at [0x00190000]
write block [1703936] at [0x001A0000]
write block [1769472] at [0x001B0000]
write block [1835008] at [0x001C0000]
write block [1900544] at [0x001D0000]
write block [1966080] at [0x001E0000]
write block [2031616] at [0x001F0000]
write block [2097152] at [0x00200000]
write block [2162688] at [0x00210000]
write block [2228224] at [0x00220000]
write block [2293760] at [0x00230000]
write block [2359296] at [0x00240000]
write block [2424832] at [0x00250000]
write block [2490368] at [0x00260000]
write block [2555904] at [0x00270000]
write block [2621440] at [0x00280000]
write block [2686976] at [0x00290000]
write block [2752512] at [0x002A0000]
write block [2818048] at [0x002B0000]
write block [2883584] at [0x002C0000]
write block [2949120] at [0x002D0000]
write block [3014656] at [0x002E0000]
write block [3080192] at [0x002F0000]
write block [3145728] at [0x00300000]
write block [3211264] at [0x00310000]
write block [3276800] at [0x00320000]
write block [3342336] at [0x00330000]
write block [3407872] at [0x00340000]
write block [3473408] at [0x00350000]
write block [3538944] at [0x00360000]
write block [3604480] at [0x00370000]
write block [3670016] at [0x00380000]
write block [3735552] at [0x00390000]
write block [3801088] at [0x003A0000]
write block [3866624] at [0x003B0000]
uploading [3932234]
erase[65536]
[UPGRADE] ret: 0
Sending SIGTERM [  144.190000] ar71xx-wdt: device closed unexpectedly, watchdog
timer will not stop!
to all processes
[  144.210000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered disabled state
[  144.230000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered disabled state
Sending SIGKILL to all processes


U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds## Booting image at bf020000 ...
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK

Starting kernel ...



OpenWrt kernel loader for AR7XXX/AR9XXX
Copyright (C) 2011 Gabor Juhos <juhosg@openwrt.org>
Decompressing kernel...
done!
Starting kernel...

[    0.000000] flash_size passed from bootloader = 1683
[    0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled
[    0.000000] CPU revision is: 00019374 (MIPS 24Kc)
[    0.000000] booting platform Atheros AR9132 rev 2 (0xb9)
[    0.000000] Determined physical RAM map:
[    0.000000]  memory: 02000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
[    0.000000] Zone ranges:
[    0.000000]   Normal   [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[    0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[    0.000000]   node   0: [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Primary instruction cache 64kB, 4-way, VIPT, I-cache aliases, lin
esize 32 bytes.
[    0.000000] Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 32
bytes
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.5.7.27 (root@dd-wrt.buildserver) (gcc version 4.8
.1 (OpenWrt/Linaro GCC 4.8-2013.04 r36550) ) #3256 Tue Dec 24 07:51:14 CET 2013
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pag
es: 8128
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 root=1f02 rootfstype=sq
uashfs noinitrd init=/sbin/init
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 128 (order: -3, 512 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.000000] __ex_table already sorted, skipping sort
[    0.000000] Writing ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Readback ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Memory: 29444k/32768k available (1918k kernel code, 3324k reserve
d, 311k data, 152k init, 0k highmem)
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:80
[    0.000000] irq init done
[    0.000000] plat_time_init: plat time init done
[    0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 265.42 BogoMIPS (lpj=1327104)
[    0.080000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.080000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
[    0.090000] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.110000] bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
[    0.120000] Switching to clocksource MIPS
[    0.130000] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.130000] IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.130000] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.150000] TCP: reno registered
[    0.150000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.170000] gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/gpio/ created
[    0.180000] Register LED Device
[    0.180000] wl0gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/wl0gpio/ created
[    0.190000] AR7100 GPIOC major 0
[    0.190000] squashfs: version 3.0 (2006/03/15) Phillip Lougher
[    0.200000] msgmni has been set to 57
[    0.200000] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.200000] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[    0.210000] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 1 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
[    0.240000] serial8250.0: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x18020000 (irq = 19) is a 16550A
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.260000] guessed flashsize = 4M
[    0.260000] scanning for root partition
[    0.260000] tplink uboot detected
[    0.270000] bootloader size = 20000
[    0.280000]
[    0.280000] found squashfs at 110000
[    0.280000] Creating 8 MTD partitions on "ar7100-nor0":
[    0.290000] 0x000000000000-0x000000020000 : "RedBoot"
[    0.290000] 0x000000020000-0x0000003e0000 : "linux"
[    0.300000] 0x000000110000-0x0000003e0000 : "rootfs"
[    0.310000] mtd: partition "rootfs" set to be root filesystem
[    0.310000] 0x0000003e0000-0x000000400000 : "ddwrt"
[    0.320000] 0x0000003e0000-0x0000003f0000 : "nvram"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "FIS directory"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "board_config"
[    0.340000] 0x000000000000-0x000000400000 : "fullflash"
[    0.350000] ->Oops: flash id 0xef4016 .
[    0.350000] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
[    0.360000] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <maxk@qualcomm.com>
[    0.360000] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[    0.370000] PPP BSD Compression module registered
[    0.370000] PPP Deflate Compression module registered
[    0.380000] PPP MPPE Compression module registered
[    0.380000] NET: Registered protocol family 24
[    0.400000] u32 classifier
[    0.400000]     Performance counters on
[    0.400000]     input device check on
[    0.410000]     Actions configured
[    0.410000] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (460 buckets, 1840 max)
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] nf_nat_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    0.440000] IPP2P v0.8.2 loading
[    0.440000] TCP: westwood registered
[    0.440000] TCP: hybla registered
[    0.450000] TCP: vegas registered
[    0.450000] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    0.450000] Bridge firewalling registered
[    0.460000] 8021q: 802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8
[    0.460000] searching for nvram
[    0.470000] nvram size = 0
[    0.520000] Atheros AR71xx hardware watchdog driver version 0.1.0
[    0.530000] ar71xx-wdt: timeout=15 secs (max=42) ref freq=100000000
[    0.540000] VFS: Mounted root (squashfs filesystem) readonly on device 31:2.
[    0.550000] Freeing unused kernel memory: 152k freed
start service
starting Architecture code for ap83
starting hotplug
Jan  1 00:00:02 udevtrigger[216]: parse_config_file: can't open '/etc/udev/udev.
conf' as config file: No such file or directory
done
load ag71xx or ag7100_mod Ethernet Driver
[    3.490000] ag7100_mod: module license 'unspecified' taints kernel.
[    3.500000] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
[    3.540000] ag7100_mii: probed
[    3.540000] eth0: Marvell 88E6060 PHY driver attached.
configure eth0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
[    3.820000] Writing 4
configure vlan0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
configure vlan1 to 00:23:CD:20:A6:DF
load ATH 802.11 a/b/g Driver
load ATH9K 802.11n Driver
[    4.020000] Loading modules backported from Linux version master-2013-11-05-0
-gafa3093
[    4.030000] nf_conntrack: automatic helper assignment is deprecated and it wi
ll be removed soon. Use the iptables CT target to attach helpers instead.
[    4.040000] Backport generated by backports.git backports-20130802-0-gdb67a3f

[    4.250000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
[    4.330000] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
[    4.340000] cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gai
n, max_eirp)
[    4.350000] cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.350000] cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.360000] cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.370000] cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.380000] cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    5.120000] ieee80211 phy0: Atheros AR9100 MAC/BB Rev:7 AR2133 RF Rev:a2 mem=
0xb80c0000, irq=2
[    5.140000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: US
[    5.140000] cfg80211: Regulatory domain changed to country: US
[    5.150000] cfg80211:
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 12/24/13 (SVN revision: 23204)

DD-WRT login:
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 12/24/13 (SVN revision: 23204)

DD-WRT login:

作者  | 2014-11-30 11:57:14 | 阅读(39) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

TP-Link TL-WR1043ND or TL-WR941nd : WAN port disable bug

2014-11-29 16:37:22 阅读48 评论0 292014/11 Nov29

http://wiki.openwrt.org/toh/tp-link/tl-wr1043nd

http://rnd.rajven.net/firmware/

Warnings / Gotchas

This section is mess and needs clean up.

Due to numerous reports that WAN bug does not occur with stock uboot, doing uboot downgrade may be possibly obsolete.

:!: WAN port disable bug (newer models v1.8+ with U-boot 2012-02-02 and later). It has been reported that recent TP-Link stock firmware packages include a new bootloader revision, which disables the WAN (port 0) at boot. This was an unhelpful fix to deal with the switch leakage, which has been implemented in trunk between r32942 - r32944 (45-46 fixes the leakage).

:!: WAN port disable bug in 1.10 As of today (20130529) installing Attitude Adjustment 12.09 on a 1.10 device works flawless and do not exhibit the WAN port disable bug.

:!: WAN port disable bug in (DE)v1.2 As of today (20130902) installing Attitude Adjustment 12.09 on a (DE)v1.2 device works flawless and do not exhibit the WAN port disable bug.

:!: WAN port disable bug in 2.1 As of today (20131230) installing Barrier Breaker (trunk) on a v2.1 device works flawless and do not exhibit the WAN port disable bug.

ALL newer hardware models v1.8 or above (from ~April 2012) is affected by this WAN port bug. Below is the code for the affected bootloader that disables the WAN port at boot after flashing.

root@tpl2:~# grep -a U-Boot /dev/mtd0ro | cut -d'I' -f1 U-Boot 1.1.4 (Feb 6 2012 - 17:03:51) U-Boot

  • Check of the TP-LINK firmware, ver. TL-WR1043ND_V1_120405 with a published date 2012/4/5: This firmware updates the bootloader code to a March 31, 2012 release date but has the same WAN port disabled on boot behavior as the Feb. 6, 2012 firmware, and so routers shipping with this firmware need the boot loader downgrade described below

U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar 31 2012 - 10:40:21) U-Boot

Bootloader downgrade

:!: WAN port disable bug (inelegant) workaround. The older german stock firmware (v3.9.17/100331) does not feature this bug. The work around involves webreverting/downgrading to this older version and then reflashing OpenWrt.

  • Step 1 (optional, only required if OpenWrt is installed): If your WAN port is now disabled follow the guide here to web revert back to stock firmware.
  • Step 2: Install german stock firmware (v3.9.17) through the TP-Link web interface. Download the firmware file "wr1043nv1_de_3_9_17_up_boot(100331).bin". ( mirror). After the German firmware flash, the u-boot code on a v1.9 router should be downgraded to the Nov. 17, 2009 version:

grep -a U-Boot /dev/mtd0ro | cut -d'I' -f1

U-Boot 1.1.4 (Nov 17 2009 - 11:56:26) U-Boot

  • Step 3: Flash the correct OpenWrt firmware image according to your router model/version:!:. This should re-enable the WAN port.
http://rnd.rajven.net/firmware/

作者  | 2014-11-29 16:37:22 | 阅读(48) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

ref:
http://www.rfsystem.it/shop/download/SB_Creative_XFi_Pro_USB.pdf


Where to buy:
http://www.amazon.ca/gp/offer-listing/B0044DEDCA/ref=olp_tab_new?ie=UTF8&condition=new

Datasheet:
CS5345   104 dB, 24-Bit, 192 kHz Stereo Audio ADC
http://www.cirrus.com/en/pubs/proDatasheet/CS5345_F4.pdf
配合 For SDR 使用的便宜 Cheap and Neat ADC: CS5345, 104 dB, 24-Bit, 192 kHz Stereo Audio ADC, on Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Surround 5.1 PRO USB - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters 考牌

作者  | 2014-11-26 1:44:44 | 阅读(34) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

http://www.csrc.gov.cn/pub/zjhpublic/G00306202/201406/P020140630488720938517.pdf

作者  | 2014-11-21 18:53:29 | 阅读(30) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

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