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[置顶] 窝洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类

2010-3-13 18:15:18 阅读2540 评论0 132010/03 Mar13

G.V.Black分类

龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - godsonx的博客

 

 

 考题:

哪些洞型可以出现在任何牙上?

 

答案:   Class I, Class V & Class VI   一类, 五类和六类洞

 

 

Cavity classification standardized methods of recording the need for restoration exist to facilitate communication among clinicians, researchers, and dental educators. The most commonly accepted means of classifying cavities is by the names of the surfaces involved. Cavity type is classified further based on the type of treatment and anatomical area involved. This classification, developed by Dr. G. V. Black in 1908, is designated by Roman numerals as Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV, Class V, and Class VI (this is the only category that has been added to his original classification system). Note: It is important to remember that the classification relates to location and not size of the cavity.

#  Class I cavities -> involve the pits and fissures, while all other classifications involve smooth surfaces
of the teeth.
      #  Class II cavities -> involve the proximal surfaces and occlusal surfaces of premolars and molars.
      #  Class III cavities -> involve the proximal surfaces of incisors and canines that do not involve the
incisal angle.
      #  Class IV cavities -> are located on the proximal surface of incisors and canines and do involve
the incisal angle.
      #  Class V cavities -> are on the facial or lingual surface of ail teeth and do not involve a pit or fissure.
      #  Class VI cavities -> are on the incisal edges of anterior teeth or on the occlusal cusp heights of
posterior teeth.

** Remember: The best method for definitive detection of incipient carious lesions on the interproximal surfaces of posterior teeth (distal surface of canines through molars) is by bite-wing radiographs. 

 

 

 

I 类洞:为发生于所有牙齿的发育窝、沟内的龋损所制备的洞形。包括磨牙[牙合]面窝沟洞,磨牙颊(舌)面的颊(舌)沟洞,前磨牙的[牙合]面窝沟洞,上前牙的腭面窝洞。

II 类洞:为发生于后牙邻面的龋损所制备的洞形。包括前磨牙的邻面洞、邻[牙合]面洞和邻颊(舌)面洞,磨牙的邻[牙合]面洞和邻颊(舌)面洞及邻面洞。

III类洞:为发生于前牙邻面未损及切角的龋损所制备的洞形。包括切牙、尖牙的邻面洞、邻腭(舌)面洞、邻唇面洞。

IV类洞:为发生于前牙邻面并损及切角的龋损所制备的洞形。包括切牙、尖牙的邻唇腭(舌)面洞,目前含义延伸及牙外伤引起切角缺损的洞。

V类洞:为发生与所有牙齿的颊(唇)、舌(腭)面近龈1/3牙面的龋损所制备的洞形。包括前牙、前磨牙、磨牙在颊或舌面的近龈1/3洞。

 

窝洞定义、结构、各部名称、代表符号

(1)窝洞定义:牙齿龋洞去净龋坏组织,经手术制备的具有特定形状的洞。要求填入充填材料后,充填材料及牙齿均能承担正常咀嚼

压力,不折断、不脱落。

(2)窝洞结构:窝洞由洞壁、洞角及洞缘角构成。


    1)洞壁:组成窝洞的内面统称为壁。按其所在牙面部位命名如近中壁、远中壁、颊壁、舌壁、龈壁、髓壁、轴壁等。

    2)洞角:两个洞壁相交构成的角称为线角(Line angles),三个洞壁相交形成的角称为点角(Point angles)。线角及点角的命名

均以构成他们的各洞壁名称联合命名,如颊轴线角、轴髓线角、颊龈轴点角、舌龈轴点角等。

    3)洞缘角(Cavosurface Margin):洞侧壁与牙齿表面的相交线称为洞缘角,也称为洞面角。


(3)窝洞的名称及符号

    1)窝洞的名称:可根据窝洞所在的牙面命名,如牙合面洞、近中洞、近中牙合面洞等;也可以窝洞所包括牙面数命名,如单面

洞、复面洞等。

    2)窝洞的符号:以所在牙面英文名称的第一个字母或前两个字母作为符号,具体如下:

    切端为I(incisive S.)颊侧为B(buccal S.)

    舌侧为L(lingual S.)牙合面为O(occlusal S.)

    唇侧为La(labial S.)近中面为M(medial S.),远中面为D(distal S.)等。


=======================================================================================

Tooth Preparation Walls
---------------------------
Internal Wall. An internal wall is a prepared (cut) surface that does not extend to the external tooth
surface (Fig. 6-10).

Axial Wall. An axial wall is an internal wall parallel
with the long axis of the tooth (see Fig. 6-10).

Pulpal Wall. A pulpal wall is an internal wall that
is perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and
occlusal of the pulp (see Figs. 6-10 and 6-13 [p]).

External Wall. An external wall is a prepared (cut)
surface that extends to the external tooth surface. Such
a wall takes the name of the tooth surface (or aspect)
that the wall is toward (see Fig. 6-10).

Floor (or Seat). A floor (or seat) is a prepared (cut) wall that is reasonably flat and perpendicular to the
occlusal forces that are directed occlusogingivally (generally parallel to the long axis of the tooth).
Examples are the pulpal and gingival walls (see Fig. 6-10).
Such floors may be purposefully prepared to provide
stabilizing seats for the restoration, distributing the
stresses in the tooth structure, rather than concentrating
them. This preparation increases the resistance form (see
later) of the restored tooth against postrestorative fracture.
More regarding this type of resistance form is
presented in a later section.

Enamel Wall. The enamel wall is that portion of
a prepared external wall consisting of enamel (see
Fig. 6-2D).

Dentinal Wall. The dentinal wall is that portion of
a prepared external wall consisting of dentin, in which
mechanical retention features may be located (see
Fig. 6-2D).


龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters
 
龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters
 
龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters



==================================================================================================



洞形设计
--------------

外形设计

窝洞外形的范围应包括所有病变组织和可疑的点隙裂沟,外形应作预防性扩展,邻面侧壁应扩展到接触点以外的自洁区,龈壁应置于平齐眼乳突边缘健康的牙休组织上。窝洞外形线应为圆缓曲线,以减少应力集中。



抗力形设计
-----------
抗力形是使充填体和余留牙能够承受咬合力而不会破裂的特定形状。Ⅰ、Ⅱ类洞对抗力形要求较高,V类洞要求可稍低。
1、洞形深度:窝洞底必须建立在牙本质上,后牙洞深应达釉牙本质界下0.2---0.5mm,前牙应达釉牙本质界的牙本质面。
2、盒状洞形:窝洞应制备成盒状,即除特殊情况外,要洞底平,侧壁平直与洞底相垂直,各侧壁之间相互平行。洞底各点线角应明确而圆钝,使应力不集中,要力均匀分布。
3、梯阶形成:复面洞的洞底应形成梯阶以均匀分担咬合力,其中龈壁与髓壁平行,轴壁与近、远中侧壁平行,各壁交接呈直角,点、线角圆钝。注意龈壁一定要与轴壁垂直,切勿形成向龈方的斜面。
4、无基釉、脆弱牙体处理:窝洞釉质壁应与釉柱排列方向平行,洞口不能留有无基釉;对脆弱的牙尖牙嵴,应适当降低高度,减轻要力负担。



固位形设计
-----------
固位形是使充填体能保留于洞内,承受更力后不移位、不脱落的特定形状。当充填材料与牙体组织无粘结力时,充填体的固位主要靠密合的摩擦力和一定的机械样合力。
1、侧壁固位:相互平行且具有一定深度的侧壁,可使充填体通过和洞壁的密合摩擦而达固位目的。
2、倒凹固位:单面洞可以在牙尖下制备倒凹增强固位,制备倒凹时要防止伤及髓角,因此洞底深度超过釉牙本质界0.5mm以上,应先垫底再制倒凹,较深的洞可以不制倒凹,使用粘结性强的修复材料时也可不制倒凹。
3、 鸠尾固位:鸠尾固位用于复面洞的固位,它借助鸠尾峡部的锁扣作用,防止充填体水平方向的脱出。鸠尾峡必须有一定的深度和宽度,宽度在后牙一般为颊舌牙尖间距的1/3。位置应在洞底轴髓线角的靠中线侧。鸠尾的宽度必须大于鸠尾峡。
4、 梯形固位:也是复面洞采用的固位形,邻雯面洞的邻面设计为龈方大于雯方的梯形,防止充填体呈垂直方向脱出。梯形的外形应作预防性扩展,梯形深度应达釉牙本质界下0.2一0.5mm。




便利形设计
-------------
在维护外形的基础上,在需要的地方略加修整,便于器械和充填物能够达到窝洞的任何部位。要达此目的,可选用适当器械,对洞形作适当延伸;当洞外形位于不健康牙龈处时,可用分离器或木楔分离牙龈,必要时切除部分牙龈。





-----------------------------------------------------

预备步骤

窝洞预备的基本步骤
1、开扩洞口或寻人口:病变部位较隐蔽的龋洞,应首先开扩洞口或寻人口,使龋洞充分暴露或为手术操作形成通路,便于观察和进行操作。可用裂钻或球钻去除洞缘的无基釉质,依病变范围开扩,或用裂钻从龋洞一侧作沟,以形成手术通路。
2、去除腐质:病变范围较大时,应先去除腐质。可先用挖匙除去洞内食物残渣和大部分腐质,然后用球钻将洞缘周围腐质除尽,最后除尽洞底腐质。洞底近髓腔处的少量软化牙本质的去留,应视实际情况而定。
3、设计并制备洞形:窝洞的洞缘线构成窝洞外形。虽然各类窝洞都有基本的外形要求,但洞形的制备还应兼顾病变破坏的范围。腐质除尽后,应依病变范围设计窝洞外形。窝洞应包括所有的病变部位,其颊(唇)、舌壁应达自洁区。窝洞的形态应符合固位形和抗力形的基本原则。制备过程中不可过多磨除健康的牙体组织。
4、修整洞形、清洗窝洞:完成洞形制备后,应去除洞内牙本质碎屑,仔细检查窝洞各部是否腐质已除尽,抗力形、固位形是否符合要求。不符合要求时应进一步去除腐质、修改洞形至达到要求。最后修整洞缘釉质,使与釉柱排列方向一致,并彻底清洗窝洞,除去所有碎屑。
5、窝洞消毒:窝洞预备后洞内牙本质小管中不可避免地会有少量细菌残留,理想的消毒药物,既可杀灭小管中的细菌,又不致损伤牙髓,对窝洞的消毒无疑有益。但目前所用的消毒药物尚不能达到上述要求。因此,除尽腐质远比消毒窝洞重要。除尽腐质即可除去绝大部分细菌,即使有少量细菌残留,由于充填修复后的环境不利细菌生长,经一定时间后也会逐渐丧失活动能力或死亡。
I类洞的制备
I类洞多为单面洞,但当龋损波及颊、舌侧面时,应制成复面洞。单面洞应底平、壁直,窝洞深度达釉牙本质界处。较深的龋损不必要求窝洞底平整,在去尽腐质后可借助垫底形成平底。复面洞时,颊面或舌面窝洞的龈壁应与牙长轴垂直,其近远中和颊舌宽度均不小于1.5mm。近、远中壁相互平行并垂直于龈壁,轴壁与龈壁垂直。要面鸠尾固位形的洞形要求同单面洞。鸠尾峡的宽度不小于1.5mm,用高速气涡轮牙钻(裂钻)沿颊沟或舌沟向更面中央窝沟或远中窝沟扩展形成鸠尾形。洞底髓壁与轴壁垂直,形成梯阶。
Ⅱ类洞的制备
Ⅱ类洞依病变破坏范围可制备单面洞或复面洞。当病变已累及接触区时,应制备复面洞;若病变未累及接触区,为避免过多磨除健康的牙齿组织,可从邻面制备单面洞;如果从邻面操作极为困难,也可制成复面洞,从更面进行操作。Ⅱ类洞多数情况下需制备成复面洞。
邻面部分制备:用裂钻从舌面边缘蜻处开扩洞口,钻轴与更面垂直,洞口的大小与邻面破坏范围一致。将邻面洞制备成盒状洞形,龈壁与轴壁垂直,宽度不超过2mm。颊舌壁位于自洁区并在要方略靠拢,使龈方颊舌壁间距略大于雯方。
Ⅲ类洞的制备
视病变范围的大小和邻面的存在与否可备成单面洞或复面洞。
1、单面洞的制备:病变范围较小,龋洞的颊、舌壁有一定厚度且同时伴有龋损侧邻牙缺失,可制备单面洞。
1.1 用倒锥钻从邻面去除龋损腐质。
1.2 按单面洞制备方法将窝洞制备成与患牙邻面外形相一致的三角形,洞底与牙面形态一致呈凸形,深度达釉牙本质界即可。
1.3 可在唇轴舌点角处制作倒凹,倒凹位于釉牙本质界下约0.5毫米处的牙本质中。
2、复面洞的制备:若前牙邻面龋损破坏范围大,或龋损侧邻牙存在,无备洞操作空间,须制备复面洞。
2.1 视龋损破坏范围及方向确定从舌侧或唇侧扩大洞口,如唇侧未遭破坏则尽量从舌侧人口。
2.2 用裂钻从舌面边缘峰处开扩洞口,洞口的切龈向宽度应与邻面破坏范围一致。邻面洞形与单面洞相同。
2.3 用裂钻从邻面约lmm深处向舌侧窝扩展形成鸠尾形,裂钻的长轴应与舌面垂直。舌面窝洞的洞形与I类洞相同。鸠尾一般不过中线,其切龈宽度约为2.5mm。切牙的鸠尾应不损伤切嵴、对侧的边缘嵴和舌隆突;由于切牙的唇舌径较小,制作鸠尾固位形时,不可加深窝洞,以免降低牙齿的抗力和意外穿髓。舌面洞底(髓壁)与邻面洞底(轴壁)互相垂直并形成梯阶。
IV类洞的制备
因受银汞合金充填材料性能所限,目前一般不用银汞合金修复IV类洞而改用复合树脂类修复材料。
V类洞的制备
1、用小号倒锥钻从唇、颊侧备洞,钻针应垂直于牙面,深度约达釉牙本质界处的牙本质中。
2、洞外形呈肾形,洞底呈凸面,与牙面平行。
3、龈壁与洞底垂直,可在轴龈线角或轴妥线角处作倒凹以增进固位。

作者  | 2010-3-13 18:15:18 | 阅读(2540) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

How ENTJs Might Irritate Others

2014-12-21 19:11:22 阅读0 评论0 212014/12 Dec21

  • Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through)
  • iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts)
  • Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values)
  • Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

If your closest personality type is ENTJ then you are looking to develop a better structure and organisation in the way things are done. You tend to control life by organising systems and people to meet task oriented goals, but you also have one eye on the future and are looking for a process of continuous improvement. You like to work with competent people who, being in the right roles, have the appropriate skills both to do their job and implement the improvements you envisage.




http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/personality/types/entj/dominant/


Careers for ENTJ Personality Types

Whether you're a young adult trying to find your place in the world, or a not-so-young adult trying to find out if you're moving along the right path, it's important to understand yourself and the personality traits which will impact your likeliness to succeed or fail at various careers. It's equally important to understand what is really important to you. When armed with an understanding of your strengths and weaknesses, and an awareness of what you truly value, you are in an excellent position to pick a career which you will find rewarding.

ENTJs generally have the following traits:

  • Driven to turn theories into plans
  • Highly value knowledge
  • Future-oriented
  • Natural leaders
  • Impatient with inefficiency and incompetence
  • Want things structured and orderly
  • Excellent verbal communication skills
  • Dislike routine, detail-oriented tasks
  • Self-confident
  • Decisive

ENTJs are especially well-suited to be leaders and organization builders. They have the ability to clearly identify problems and innovative solutions for the short and long-term well-being of an organization. Having a strong desire to lead, they're not likely to be happy as followers. ENTJs like to be in charge, and need to be in charge to take advantage of their special capabilities.

The following list of professions is built on our impressions of careers which would be especially suitable for an ENTJ. It is meant to be a starting place, rather than an exhaustive list. There are no guarantees that any or all of the careers listed here would be appropriate for you, or that your best career match is among those listed.

Possible Career Paths for the ENTJ:
 
   Corporate Executive Officer; Organization Builder
   Entrepreneur
   Computer Consultant
   Lawyer
   Judge
   Business Administrators and Managers
   University Professors and Administrators



Each personality type can potentially irritate other people in their own particular way.

How ENTJs Might Irritate Others

The potential ways in which an ENTJ can irritate others include taking control when it is their role to do so, issuing directives sometimes without explaining the reasons why, and dominating the team. Also, if you are in charge, you may not take sufficient account of others' feelings, and drive the team too hard. There may also be a possibility that you decide too quickly, without sufficient consultation with others, and don't take sufficient account of current realities. As a result you may end up introducing too much change, rather than leaving well-established, workable routines alone.

How To Improve Relationships

You can overcome personality type differences by learning about your similarities and differences with other people. This leads to greater understanding, appreciation, and respect. Also, if you learn to adapt your style this will make you more influential and respected.

There is a comprehensive guide on how to do this in the book Influencing People Using Myers Briggs. This is available as an option when you complete the personality test.




ENTJ Careers, Jobs, Majors, & Holland Code

By Dr. A.J. Drenth

ENTJs are bold, intelligent, and hard-driving leaders. They are your quintessential CEOs, fieldmarshalls, and “Type-A” personalities. Given sufficient intellect and ambition, ENTJs will rise to upper-tier leadership positions in any number of jobs and careers.

ENTJs take their lives and their work quite seriously, typically preferring work over play. Their dominant function is Extraverted Thinking (Te), the primary aim of which involves making the external world more rational, efficient, and organized. As for INTJ career-seekers, Te confers a great advantage for ENTJs when it comes to job and career choices, since the modern working world is in many ways a Te sort of system. Namely, to swim in the sea of modern work, one must understand and be willing to navigate an intricate web of rules, procedures and bureaucracy. In general, Ti types (i.e., TPs) are less equipped for and less tolerant of Te systems. For ENTJs, however, navigating Te systems is their bread and butter, their primary playground. And since Te systems can be found anywhere, from business, to science, to academia, ENTJs have virtually infinite career options at their disposal.

ENTJs’ auxiliary function, Introverted Intuition (Ni), lends a visionary element. While typically not as developed as that of INTJs, Ni helps see the bigger picture and to synthesize ample amounts of data. Ni also confers a sense of confidence and conviction, contributing to ENTJs’ aura of strength, confidence, and decisiveness.

ENTJs’ tertiary function, Extraverted Sensing (Se), is important to the extent that it drives ENTJs to seek and value material wealth. Money and prestige can be a motivating factor for many ENTJs, fueling their desire to rise to the top of whatever ladder they are climbing. INTJs can display similar inclinations in this regard.

ENTJs’ inferior function, Introverted Feeling (Fi), may impel them to work toward causes they feel are important and valuable. If they allow their Fi too much say, however, they may take up careers or majors that are ill-suited for the signature strengths, namely, those of their Te. For instance, while working with disadvantaged children is certainly a noble pursuit, this sort of work would place far too much emphasis on ENTJs’ Fi and far too little on their Te. They would likely be better off running an organization whose aim was to help needy children rather than directly involving themselves in the actual helping.

ENTJ Holland Career Interests/Code

The Holland Career Interest Inventory is one of the better career tools available. It includes six interest domains—Realistic (R), Investigative (I), Artistic (A), Social (S), Enterprising (E), Conventional (C)—collectively known as “RIASEC.” Once an individual has identified his top two or three interest domains, the letters can be combined to form a two or three letter Holland code (e.g., ISA, ASI) which can then be matched with the codes of various careers or college majors. For an overview of the Holland as it relates to the Myers-Briggs types, see my post, Holland Code (RIASEC) Career Interests & Myers-Briggs Types.

Realistic

The Realistic interest domain is associated with Myers-Briggs Thinking, Extraverted Sensing, as well as the Perceiving preference. Hence, STPs are the types most apt to display strong Realistic interests.

As Thinking types, some ENTJs may exhibit some degree of Realistic interests, although this is typically not their strongest interest domain. Nonetheless, the following Realistic careers/majors may be well-suited for ENTJs:

? Computer science, systems analyst, informatics, programmer
? Engineering (all types)
? Urban planning

Investigative

The Investigative domain can also be associated with Myers-Briggs Thinking, as well as Intuition to a certain extent. Therefore, it tends to be among the top domains for ENTJs.

Since ENTJs use Te rather than Ti, they often display strong interests in formal scientific research and development. However, as Extraverts, they are generally ill-suited for perching in a laboratory all day. Most would prefer functioning as chief investigator on scientific projects or heading up their own R & D company.

Medical and pharmaceutical research would also fall under the Investigative domain, as would work as a doctor/physician. All of these are solid careers for ENTJs, since modern medicine has been built around Te models with respect to research, diagnosis, and treatment.

? Actuary
? Astronomy/astronomer
? Biochemistry,biology, chemistry, neuroscience
? Economics /economist
? Financial planning/analyst
? Health/medical sciences, public health
? Researcher
? Social science research (psychology, sociology, political science)
? Physician, medical doctor: most specialties
? Physics/physicist

Artistic

While ENTJs may appreciate the arts, very few can be considered true artists. True artists are typically N dominants or F types. Thinking, especially Extraverted Thinking, is far too pragmatic a function to be concerned with the divergent, impractical ways of the arts. So while ENTJs may appreciate the arts, artistic work would typically not constitute their ideal career.

Social

The Social interest domain is populated by teachers, caretakers, healthcare workers, clergy, and trainers, most of whom are Myers-Briggs Feeling types. Because of their inferior Fi, some ENTJs may be drawn to certain Social careers. However, as suggested earlier, such careers can end up being a poor fit if ENTJs are regularly forced to rely on their Fi rather than Te. Although there are relatively few good Social career options for ENTJs, becoming a lecturer/college professor is probably a good option.

Enterprising

The Enterprising domain involves the promotion of products, ideas, or services. Typical Enterprising careers include sales and marketing, business and management, law, politics, journalism, insurance, and stock trading. Enterprising individuals often prefer Extraversion.

ENTJs are naturally Enterprising. They are self-starters, good salespersons, and excel with business and management. They can also make excellent attorneys and entrepreneurs.

? Entrepreneur
? Corporate manager, executive
? Law, lawyer, attorney
? Politician

Conventional

Persons with Conventional interests typically enjoy administrative work. They do well with manipulating data and are organized and detail-oriented. Those in this domain often prefer Sensing, Thinking, and/or Judging.

As TJ types, ENTJs are generally quite competent in attending to the details associated with Conventional work. They often enjoy working with numbers and data. But despite their competence this domain, this is rarely their preferred interest domain.

On the whole, ENTJs display strongest interest in the Investigative and Enterprising domains, preferring careers with IE or EI Holland codes.

You can learn more about ENTJs in Dr. Drenth’s latest eBooks:

My True Type: Clarifying Your Personality Type, Preferences & Functions

The 16 Personality Types: Profiles, Theory, & Type Development

作者  | 2014-12-21 19:11:22 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

The Scanning Electron Microscope

2014-12-5 10:07:09 阅读0 评论0 52014/12 Dec5


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GY9lfO-tVfE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdjYVF4a6iU


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vty_-qKUzU&list=PLBc3XCOs_fk1MvBs7_VCQfp0J6yrQP_p_

作者  | 2014-12-5 10:07:09 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

Harmonic_oscillator

2014-12-2 14:23:08 阅读0 评论0 22014/12 Dec2


Simple harmonic oscillator[edit]

Main article: Simple harmonic motion
Simple harmonic motion

A simple harmonic oscillator is an oscillator that is neither driven nor damped. It consists of a mass m, which experiences a single force, F, which pulls the mass in the direction of the point x=0 and depends only on the mass's position x and a constant k. Balance of forces (Newton's second law) for the system is

F = m a = m \frac{\mathrm{d}^2x}{\mathrm{d}t^2} = -k x.

Solving this differential equation, we find that the motion is described by the function

 x(t) = A\cos\left( \omega t+\phi\right),

where

\omega = \sqrt{\frac{k}{m}} = \frac{2\pi}{T}.

The motion is periodic, repeating itself in a sinusoidal fashion with constant amplitude, A. In addition to its amplitude, the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is characterized by its period T, the time for a single oscillation or its frequency f = 1?T, the number of cycles per unit time. The position at a given time t also depends on the phaseφ, which determines the starting point on the sine wave. The period and frequency are determined by the size of the mass m and the force constant k, while the amplitude and phase are determined by the starting position andvelocity.

The velocity and acceleration of a simple harmonic oscillator oscillate with the same frequency as the position but with shifted phases. The velocity is maximum for zero displacement, while the acceleration is in the opposite direction as the displacement.

The potential energy stored in a simple harmonic oscillator at position x is

U = \frac{1}{2}kx^2.

作者  | 2014-12-2 14:23:08 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

DD-WRT: Flashing with Command Line

2014-11-30 18:51:33 阅读0 评论0 302014/11 Nov30

Flashing with Command Line

 
1. Telnet or ssh into DD-WRT.

2. Download the firmware to the router's /tmp directory with wget or scp.

cd /tmp
wget ftp://yourFTPserverIP/trusted.bin
 
3. Compare the MD5 checksum of the original and the downloaded file.

md5sum trusted.bin
Write the firmware to flash.

5. write trusted.bin linux
6. Wait...

Reboot

7. Restore factory defaults using erase nvram command or reset button

作者  | 2014-11-30 18:51:33 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

TP-LINK WR 941nd v3.2 被砖以后怎么办? 波特率怎么选?

2014-11-30 11:57:14 阅读0 评论0 302014/11 Nov30

115200, 8,  none, 1, none
------------------------------------------------------
选小了是乱码。

 U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds## Booting image at bf020000 ...
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... Error: Bad gzipped data
GUNZIP ERROR - must RESET board to recover

Resetting...U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds
=================================================
  在这里狂按   tpl [enter],   tpl [enter],   tpl [enter],  tpl [enter],   得到以下的提示符
Autobooting in 1 secondsar7100>
ar7100>
ar7100>

 
ar7100>

===============================================================
    下载  DD-wrt  的 Reversal ROM / |Firmware  
ar7100> setenv serverip 192.168.1.2; setenv ipaddr 192.168.1.1
ar7100> printenv bootcmd
bootcmd=bootm 0xbf020000
ar7100> tftp 0x80800000 dd.bin
set link to 100M full by lqm.
dup 1 speed 100
Using eth0 device
TFTP from server 192.168.1.2; our IP address is 192.168.1.1
Filename 'dd.bin'.
Load address: 0x80800000
Loading: checksum bad
checksum bad
checksum bad
#################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         ######################################################
done
Bytes transferred = 3932160 (3c0000 hex)
ar7100> erase.b 0xbf020000 +0x3c0000

First 0x2 last 0x3d sector size 0x10000
  61
Erased 60 sectors
ar7100> cp.b 0x80800000 0xbf020000 0x3c0000
Copy to Flash... write addr: bf020000
done
ar7100> reset.

U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds## Booting image at bf020000 ...
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK

Starting kernel ...



OpenWrt kernel loader for AR7XXX/AR9XXX
Copyright (C) 2011 Gabor Juhos <juhosg@openwrt.org>
Decompressing kernel...
done!
Starting kernel...

[    0.000000] flash_size passed from bootloader = 1615
[    0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled
[    0.000000] booting platform Atheros AR9132 rev 2 (0xb9)
[    0.000000] Determined physical RAM map:
[    0.000000]  memory: 02000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
[    0.000000] Zone ranges:
[    0.000000]   Normal   [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[    0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[    0.000000]   node   0: [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Primary instruction cache 64kB, 4-way, VIPT, I-cache aliases, lin
esize 32 bytes.
[    0.000000] Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 32
bytes
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.5.7 (root@dd-wrt) (gcc version 4.7.3 20121205 (pr
erelease) (Linaro GCC 4.7-2012.12) ) #6147 Mon Mar 25 08:49:28 CET 2013
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pag
es: 8128
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 root=1f02 rootfstype=sq
uashfs noinitrd init=/sbin/init
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 128 (order: -3, 512 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.000000] __ex_table already sorted, skipping sort
[    0.000000] Writing ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Readback ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Memory: 29492k/32768k available (2131k kernel code, 3276k reserve
d, 389k data, 156k init, 0k highmem)
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:80
[    0.000000] irq init done
[    0.000000] plat_time_init: plat time init done
[    0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 265.42 BogoMIPS (lpj=1327104)
[    0.080000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.080000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
[    0.090000] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.110000] bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
[    0.120000] Switching to clocksource MIPS
[    0.130000] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.130000] IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.130000] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.150000] TCP: reno registered
[    0.150000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.170000] gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/gpio/ created
[    0.180000] Register LED Device
[    0.180000] wl0gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/wl0gpio/ created
[    0.190000] AR7100 GPIOC major 0
[    0.190000] squashfs: version 3.0 (2006/03/15) Phillip Lougher
[    0.200000] msgmni has been set to 57
[    0.200000] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.200000] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[    0.210000] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 1 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
[    0.240000] serial8250.0: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x18020000 (irq = 19) is a 16550A
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.260000] guessed flashsize = 4M
[    0.260000] scanning for root partition
[    0.260000] tplink uboot detected
[    0.270000] bootloader size = 20000
[    0.280000]
[    0.280000] found squashfs at 110000
[    0.280000] Creating 8 MTD partitions on "ar7100-nor0":
[    0.290000] 0x000000000000-0x000000020000 : "RedBoot"
[    0.290000] 0x000000020000-0x0000003e0000 : "linux"
[    0.300000] 0x000000110000-0x0000003e0000 : "rootfs"
[    0.310000] mtd: partition "rootfs" set to be root filesystem
[    0.310000] 0x0000003e0000-0x000000400000 : "ddwrt"
[    0.320000] 0x0000003e0000-0x0000003f0000 : "nvram"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "FIS directory"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "board_config"
[    0.340000] 0x000000000000-0x000000400000 : "fullflash"
[    0.350000] ->Oops: flash id 0xef4016 .
[    0.350000] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
[    0.360000] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <maxk@qualcomm.com>
[    0.360000] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[    0.370000] PPP BSD Compression module registered
[    0.370000] PPP Deflate Compression module registered
[    0.380000] PPP MPPE Compression module registered
[    0.380000] NET: Registered protocol family 24
[    0.400000] u32 classifier
[    0.400000]     Performance counters on
[    0.400000]     input device check on
[    0.410000]     Actions configured
[    0.410000] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (460 buckets, 1840 max)
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] nf_nat_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    0.440000] IPP2P v0.8.2 loading
[    0.440000] TCP: westwood registered
[    0.440000] TCP: hybla registered
[    0.450000] TCP: vegas registered
[    0.450000] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    0.450000] Bridge firewalling registered
[    0.460000] 8021q: 802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8
[    0.460000] searching for nvram
[    0.470000] nvram size = 0
[    0.520000] Broken NVRAM found, recovering it (Magic FFFFFFFF)
[    0.530000] Atheros AR71xx hardware watchdog driver version 0.1.0
[    0.530000] ar71xx-wdt: timeout=15 secs (max=42) ref freq=100000000
[    0.550000] VFS: Mounted root (squashfs filesystem) readonly on device 31:2.
[    0.550000] Freeing unused kernel memory: 156k freed
start service
starting Architecture code for ap83
starting hotplug
Jan  1 00:00:02 udevtrigger[221]: parse_config_file: can't open '/etc/udev/udev.
conf' as config file: No such file or directory
done
load ag71xx or ag7100_mod Ethernet Driver
[    3.530000] ag7100_mod: module license 'unspecified' taints kernel.
[    3.540000] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
[    3.580000] ag7100_mii: probed
[    3.580000] eth0: Marvell 88E6060 PHY driver attached.
configure eth0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
[    3.860000] Writing 4
configure vlan0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
configure vlan1 to 00:23:CD:20:A6:DF
load ATH 802.11 a/b/g Driver
[    3.950000] nf_conntrack: automatic helper assignment is deprecated and it wi
ll be removed soon. Use the iptables CT target to attach helpers instead.
load ATH9K 802.11n Driver
[    4.060000] Compat-drivers backport release: compat-drivers-2013-01-21-1
[    4.070000] Backport based on wireless-testing.git master-2013-02-22
[    4.070000] compat.git: wireless-testing.git
[    4.280000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
[    4.280000] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
[    4.290000] cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gai
n, max_eirp)
[    4.290000] cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.300000] cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.310000] cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.320000] cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.330000] cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    5.110000] ieee80211 phy0: Atheros AR9100 MAC/BB Rev:7 AR2133 RF Rev:a2 mem=
0xb80c0000, irq=2
[    5.130000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: US
[    5.130000] cfg80211: Regulatory domain changed to countr

[    9.080000] br0: port 1(vlan0) entered forwarding state
freq:2412 qual:93 noise:-95
freq:2417 qual:44 noise:-95
freq:2422 qual:56 noise:-95
freq:2427 qual:72 noise:-95
freq:2432 qual:47 noise:-95
freq:2437 qual:96 noise:-95
freq:2442 qual:47 noise:-95
freq:2447 qual:69 noise:-95
freq:2452 qual:69 noise:-95
freq:2457 qual:48 noise:-95
freq:2462 qual:92 noise:-95
mac80211autochannel interface: ath0 frequency: 2437
setup ath0 00:23:CD:20:A6:DE
[   10.580000] device ath0 entered promiscuous mode
[   10.590000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered forwarding state
[   10.590000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered forwarding state
[   11.390000] device vlan1 entered promiscuous mode
[   11.430000] device vlan1 left promiscuous mode
ath9k radio 1: phy0 ath0
SIOCGIFFLAGS: No such device
[   12.590000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered forwarding state
[   12.720000] etherip: Ethernet over IPv4 tunneling driver
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 03/25/13 (SVN revision: 21061)

DD-WRT login: root
Password:

Login incorrect

root
password = admin

==========================================================

 ____  ___    __        ______ _____         ____  _  _
 | _ \| _ \   \ \      / /  _ \_   _| __   _|___ \| || |
 || | || ||____\ \ /\ / /| |_) || |   \ \ / / __) | || |_
 ||_| ||_||_____\ V  V / |  _ < | |    \ V / / __/|__   _|
 |___/|___/      \_/\_/  |_| \_\|_|     \_/ |_____|  |_|

                       DD-WRT v24-sp2
                   http://www.dd-wrt.com

==========================================================
Jan  1 00:04:53 login[1144]: root login on 'console'


BusyBox v1.21.0 (2013-03-25 08:51:09 CET) built-in shell (ash)
Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.

root@DD-WRT:~#
root@DD-WRT:~# erase nvram
erase[65536]
root@DD-WRT:~# reboot
root@DD-WRT:~# Sending SIGTERM [  336.500000] ar71xx-wdt: device closed unexpect
edly, watchdog timer will not stop!
to all processes
[  336.520000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered disabled state
[  336.540000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered disabled state
Sending SIGKILL

U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds## Booting image at bf020000 ...
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK

Starting kernel ...



OpenWrt kernel loader for AR7XXX/AR9XXX
Copyright (C) 2011 Gabor Juhos <juhosg@openwrt.org>
Decompressing kernel...
done!
Starting kernel...

[    0.000000] flash_size passed from bootloader = 1615
[    0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled
[    0.000000] booting platform Atheros AR9132 rev 2 (0xb9)
[    0.000000] Determined physical RAM map:
[    0.000000]  memory: 02000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
[    0.000000] Zone ranges:
[    0.000000]   Normal   [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[    0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[    0.000000]   node   0: [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Primary instruction cache 64kB, 4-way, VIPT, I-cache aliases, lin
esize 32 bytes.
[    0.000000] Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 32
bytes
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.5.7 (root@dd-wrt) (gcc version 4.7.3 20121205 (pr
erelease) (Linaro GCC 4.7-2012.12) ) #6147 Mon Mar 25 08:49:28 CET 2013
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pag
es: 8128
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 root=1f02 rootfstype=sq
uashfs noinitrd init=/sbin/init
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 128 (order: -3, 512 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.000000] __ex_table already sorted, skipping sort
[    0.000000] Writing ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Readback ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Memory: 29492k/32768k available (2131k kernel code, 3276k reserve
d, 389k data, 156k init, 0k highmem)
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:80
[    0.000000] irq init done
[    0.000000] plat_time_init: plat time init done
[    0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 265.42 BogoMIPS (lpj=1327104)
[    0.080000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.080000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
[    0.090000] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.110000] bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
[    0.120000] Switching to clocksource MIPS
[    0.130000] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.130000] IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.130000] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.150000] TCP: reno registered
[    0.150000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.170000] gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/gpio/ created
[    0.180000] Register LED Device
[    0.180000] wl0gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/wl0gpio/ created
[    0.190000] AR7100 GPIOC major 0
[    0.190000] squashfs: version 3.0 (2006/03/15) Phillip Lougher
[    0.200000] msgmni has been set to 57
[    0.200000] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.200000] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[    0.210000] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 1 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
[    0.240000] serial8250.0: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x18020000 (irq = 19) is a 16550A
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.260000] guessed flashsize = 4M
[    0.260000] scanning for root partition
[    0.260000] tplink uboot detected
[    0.270000] bootloader size = 20000
[    0.280000]
[    0.280000] found squashfs at 110000
[    0.280000] Creating 8 MTD partitions on "ar7100-nor0":
[    0.290000] 0x000000000000-0x000000020000 : "RedBoot"
[    0.290000] 0x000000020000-0x0000003e0000 : "linux"
[    0.300000] 0x000000110000-0x0000003e0000 : "rootfs"
[    0.310000] mtd: partition "rootfs" set to be root filesystem
[    0.310000] 0x0000003e0000-0x000000400000 : "ddwrt"
[    0.320000] 0x0000003e0000-0x0000003f0000 : "nvram"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "FIS directory"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "board_config"
[    0.340000] 0x000000000000-0x000000400000 : "fullflash"
[    0.350000] ->Oops: flash id 0xef4016 .
[    0.350000] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
[    0.360000] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <maxk@qualcomm.com>
[    0.360000] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[    0.370000] PPP BSD Compression module registered
[    0.370000] PPP Deflate Compression module registered
[    0.380000] PPP MPPE Compression module registered
[    0.380000] NET: Registered protocol family 24
[    0.400000] u32 classifier
[    0.400000]     Performance counters on
[    0.400000]     input device check on
[    0.410000]     Actions configured
[    0.410000] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (460 buckets, 1840 max)
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] nf_nat_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    0.440000] IPP2P v0.8.2 loading
[    0.440000] TCP: westwood registered
[    0.440000] TCP: hybla registered
[    0.450000] TCP: vegas registered
[    0.450000] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    0.450000] Bridge firewalling registered
[    0.460000] 8021q: 802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8
[    0.460000] searching for nvram
[    0.470000] nvram size = 0
[    0.520000] Broken NVRAM found, recovering it (Magic FFFFFFFF)
[    0.530000] Atheros AR71xx hardware watchdog driver version 0.1.0
[    0.530000] ar71xx-wdt: timeout=15 secs (max=42) ref freq=100000000
[    0.550000] VFS: Mounted root (squashfs filesystem) readonly on device 31:2.
[    0.550000] Freeing unused kernel memory: 156k freed
start service
starting Architecture code for ap83
starting hotplug
Jan  1 00:00:02 udevtrigger[221]: parse_config_file: can't open '/etc/udev/udev.
conf' as config file: No such file or directory
done
load ag71xx or ag7100_mod Ethernet Driver
[    3.530000] ag7100_mod: module license 'unspecified' taints kernel.
[    3.540000] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
[    3.580000] ag7100_mii: probed
[    3.580000] eth0: Marvell 88E6060 PHY driver attached.
configure eth0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
[    3.860000] Writing 4
configure vlan0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
[    3.910000] nf_conntrack: automatic helper assignment is deprecated and it wi
ll be removed soon. Use the iptables CT target to attach helpers instead.
configure vlan1 to 00:23:CD:20:A6:DF
load ATH 802.11 a/b/g Driver
load ATH9K 802.11n Driver
[    4.060000] Compat-drivers backport release: compat-drivers-2013-01-21-1
[    4.070000] Backport based on wireless-testing.git master-2013-02-22
[    4.070000] compat.git: wireless-testing.git
[    4.280000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
[    4.280000] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
[    4.290000] cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gai
n, max_eirp)
[    4.290000] cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.300000] cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.310000] cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.320000] cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.330000] cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    5.110000] ieee80211 phy0: Atheros AR9100 MAC/BB Rev:7 AR2133 RF Rev:a2 mem=
0xb80c0000, irq=2
[    5.130000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: US
[    5.130000] cfg80211: Regulatory domain changed to country
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 03/25/13 (SVN revision: 21061)

DD-WRT login:
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 03/25/13 (SVN revision: 21061)

DD-WRT login: [APPLY] index (null) (null)
submit_button=[index] submit_type=[changepass]
name=[index] type=[changepass] service=[] sleep=[1] action=[5]

Login timed out no valid redboot partition found
upgrade_ver[v62.1.0] upgrade_ver[620100] intel_ver[14108] 4712_ver[15000]
function stop_pppoeserver not found
function stop_openvpn not found
function stop_openvpnserver not found
function stop_freeradius not found
freeram=[13512704] bufferram=[2060288]
The free memory is enough, writing image once.
write=[3932160]
linux: CRC OK
Writing image to flash, waiting a moment...
write block [0] at [0x00000000]
write block [65536] at [0x00010000]
write block [131072] at [0x00020000]
write block [196608] at [0x00030000]
write block [262144] at [0x00040000]
write block [327680] at [0x00050000]
write block [393216] at [0x00060000]
write block [458752] at [0x00070000]
write block [524288] at [0x00080000]
write block [589824] at [0x00090000]
write block [655360] at [0x000A0000]
write block [720896] at [0x000B0000]
write block [786432] at [0x000C0000]
write block [851968] at [0x000D0000]
write block [917504] at [0x000E0000]
write block [983040] at [0x000F0000]
write block [1048576] at [0x00100000]
write block [1114112] at [0x00110000]
write block [1179648] at [0x00120000]
write block [1245184] at [0x00130000]
write block [1310720] at [0x00140000]
write block [1376256] at [0x00150000]
write block [1441792] at [0x00160000]
write block [1507328] at [0x00170000]
write block [1572864] at [0x00180000]
write block [1638400] at [0x00190000]
write block [1703936] at [0x001A0000]
write block [1769472] at [0x001B0000]
write block [1835008] at [0x001C0000]
write block [1900544] at [0x001D0000]
write block [1966080] at [0x001E0000]
write block [2031616] at [0x001F0000]
write block [2097152] at [0x00200000]
write block [2162688] at [0x00210000]
write block [2228224] at [0x00220000]
write block [2293760] at [0x00230000]
write block [2359296] at [0x00240000]
write block [2424832] at [0x00250000]
write block [2490368] at [0x00260000]
write block [2555904] at [0x00270000]
write block [2621440] at [0x00280000]
write block [2686976] at [0x00290000]
write block [2752512] at [0x002A0000]
write block [2818048] at [0x002B0000]
write block [2883584] at [0x002C0000]
write block [2949120] at [0x002D0000]
write block [3014656] at [0x002E0000]
write block [3080192] at [0x002F0000]
write block [3145728] at [0x00300000]
write block [3211264] at [0x00310000]
write block [3276800] at [0x00320000]
write block [3342336] at [0x00330000]
write block [3407872] at [0x00340000]
write block [3473408] at [0x00350000]
write block [3538944] at [0x00360000]
write block [3604480] at [0x00370000]
write block [3670016] at [0x00380000]
write block [3735552] at [0x00390000]
write block [3801088] at [0x003A0000]
write block [3866624] at [0x003B0000]
uploading [3932234]
erase[65536]
[UPGRADE] ret: 0
Sending SIGTERM [  144.190000] ar71xx-wdt: device closed unexpectedly, watchdog
timer will not stop!
to all processes
[  144.210000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered disabled state
[  144.230000] br0: port 2(ath0) entered disabled state
Sending SIGKILL to all processes


U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar  8 2010 - 10:28:58)

AP81 (ar7100) U-boot
DRAM:
sri
32 MB
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 4MB, sector count = 64
Flash:  4 MB
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   ag7100_enet_initialize...
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
bsingle_phy = 0
eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad
eth0 up
eth0
Autobooting in 1 seconds## Booting image at bf020000 ...
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK

Starting kernel ...



OpenWrt kernel loader for AR7XXX/AR9XXX
Copyright (C) 2011 Gabor Juhos <juhosg@openwrt.org>
Decompressing kernel...
done!
Starting kernel...

[    0.000000] flash_size passed from bootloader = 1683
[    0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled
[    0.000000] CPU revision is: 00019374 (MIPS 24Kc)
[    0.000000] booting platform Atheros AR9132 rev 2 (0xb9)
[    0.000000] Determined physical RAM map:
[    0.000000]  memory: 02000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
[    0.000000] Zone ranges:
[    0.000000]   Normal   [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[    0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[    0.000000]   node   0: [mem 0x00000000-0x01ffffff]
[    0.000000] Primary instruction cache 64kB, 4-way, VIPT, I-cache aliases, lin
esize 32 bytes.
[    0.000000] Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 32
bytes
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.5.7.27 (root@dd-wrt.buildserver) (gcc version 4.8
.1 (OpenWrt/Linaro GCC 4.8-2013.04 r36550) ) #3256 Tue Dec 24 07:51:14 CET 2013
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pag
es: 8128
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 root=1f02 rootfstype=sq
uashfs noinitrd init=/sbin/init
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 128 (order: -3, 512 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.000000] __ex_table already sorted, skipping sort
[    0.000000] Writing ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Readback ErrCtl register=00000000
[    0.000000] Memory: 29444k/32768k available (1918k kernel code, 3324k reserve
d, 311k data, 152k init, 0k highmem)
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:80
[    0.000000] irq init done
[    0.000000] plat_time_init: plat time init done
[    0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 265.42 BogoMIPS (lpj=1327104)
[    0.080000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.080000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
[    0.090000] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.110000] bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
[    0.120000] Switching to clocksource MIPS
[    0.130000] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.130000] IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.130000] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.140000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.150000] TCP: reno registered
[    0.150000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.160000] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.170000] gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/gpio/ created
[    0.180000] Register LED Device
[    0.180000] wl0gpio_proc: module loaded and /proc/wl0gpio/ created
[    0.190000] AR7100 GPIOC major 0
[    0.190000] squashfs: version 3.0 (2006/03/15) Phillip Lougher
[    0.200000] msgmni has been set to 57
[    0.200000] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.200000] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[    0.210000] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 1 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
[    0.240000] serial8250.0: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x18020000 (irq = 19) is a 16550A
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.240000] console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
[    0.260000] guessed flashsize = 4M
[    0.260000] scanning for root partition
[    0.260000] tplink uboot detected
[    0.270000] bootloader size = 20000
[    0.280000]
[    0.280000] found squashfs at 110000
[    0.280000] Creating 8 MTD partitions on "ar7100-nor0":
[    0.290000] 0x000000000000-0x000000020000 : "RedBoot"
[    0.290000] 0x000000020000-0x0000003e0000 : "linux"
[    0.300000] 0x000000110000-0x0000003e0000 : "rootfs"
[    0.310000] mtd: partition "rootfs" set to be root filesystem
[    0.310000] 0x0000003e0000-0x000000400000 : "ddwrt"
[    0.320000] 0x0000003e0000-0x0000003f0000 : "nvram"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "FIS directory"
[    0.330000] 0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "board_config"
[    0.340000] 0x000000000000-0x000000400000 : "fullflash"
[    0.350000] ->Oops: flash id 0xef4016 .
[    0.350000] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
[    0.360000] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <maxk@qualcomm.com>
[    0.360000] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[    0.370000] PPP BSD Compression module registered
[    0.370000] PPP Deflate Compression module registered
[    0.380000] PPP MPPE Compression module registered
[    0.380000] NET: Registered protocol family 24
[    0.400000] u32 classifier
[    0.400000]     Performance counters on
[    0.400000]     input device check on
[    0.410000]     Actions configured
[    0.410000] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (460 buckets, 1840 max)
[    0.420000] nf_conntrack_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] nf_nat_rtsp v0.6.21 loading
[    0.430000] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    0.440000] IPP2P v0.8.2 loading
[    0.440000] TCP: westwood registered
[    0.440000] TCP: hybla registered
[    0.450000] TCP: vegas registered
[    0.450000] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    0.450000] Bridge firewalling registered
[    0.460000] 8021q: 802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8
[    0.460000] searching for nvram
[    0.470000] nvram size = 0
[    0.520000] Atheros AR71xx hardware watchdog driver version 0.1.0
[    0.530000] ar71xx-wdt: timeout=15 secs (max=42) ref freq=100000000
[    0.540000] VFS: Mounted root (squashfs filesystem) readonly on device 31:2.
[    0.550000] Freeing unused kernel memory: 152k freed
start service
starting Architecture code for ap83
starting hotplug
Jan  1 00:00:02 udevtrigger[216]: parse_config_file: can't open '/etc/udev/udev.
conf' as config file: No such file or directory
done
load ag71xx or ag7100_mod Ethernet Driver
[    3.490000] ag7100_mod: module license 'unspecified' taints kernel.
[    3.500000] Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
[    3.540000] ag7100_mii: probed
[    3.540000] eth0: Marvell 88E6060 PHY driver attached.
configure eth0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
[    3.820000] Writing 4
configure vlan0 to 00:23:cd:20:a6:de
configure vlan1 to 00:23:CD:20:A6:DF
load ATH 802.11 a/b/g Driver
load ATH9K 802.11n Driver
[    4.020000] Loading modules backported from Linux version master-2013-11-05-0
-gafa3093
[    4.030000] nf_conntrack: automatic helper assignment is deprecated and it wi
ll be removed soon. Use the iptables CT target to attach helpers instead.
[    4.040000] Backport generated by backports.git backports-20130802-0-gdb67a3f

[    4.250000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
[    4.330000] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
[    4.340000] cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gai
n, max_eirp)
[    4.350000] cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.350000] cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.360000] cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.370000] cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    4.380000] cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 20
00 mBm)
[    5.120000] ieee80211 phy0: Atheros AR9100 MAC/BB Rev:7 AR2133 RF Rev:a2 mem=
0xb80c0000, irq=2
[    5.140000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: US
[    5.140000] cfg80211: Regulatory domain changed to country: US
[    5.150000] cfg80211:
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 12/24/13 (SVN revision: 23204)

DD-WRT login:
DD-WRT v24-sp2 std (c) 2013 NewMedia-NET GmbH
Release: 12/24/13 (SVN revision: 23204)

DD-WRT login:

作者  | 2014-11-30 11:57:14 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

TP-Link TL-WR1043ND or TL-WR941nd : WAN port disable bug

2014-11-29 16:37:22 阅读0 评论0 292014/11 Nov29

http://wiki.openwrt.org/toh/tp-link/tl-wr1043nd

http://rnd.rajven.net/firmware/

Warnings / Gotchas

This section is mess and needs clean up.

Due to numerous reports that WAN bug does not occur with stock uboot, doing uboot downgrade may be possibly obsolete.

:!: WAN port disable bug (newer models v1.8+ with U-boot 2012-02-02 and later). It has been reported that recent TP-Link stock firmware packages include a new bootloader revision, which disables the WAN (port 0) at boot. This was an unhelpful fix to deal with the switch leakage, which has been implemented in trunk between r32942 - r32944 (45-46 fixes the leakage).

:!: WAN port disable bug in 1.10 As of today (20130529) installing Attitude Adjustment 12.09 on a 1.10 device works flawless and do not exhibit the WAN port disable bug.

:!: WAN port disable bug in (DE)v1.2 As of today (20130902) installing Attitude Adjustment 12.09 on a (DE)v1.2 device works flawless and do not exhibit the WAN port disable bug.

:!: WAN port disable bug in 2.1 As of today (20131230) installing Barrier Breaker (trunk) on a v2.1 device works flawless and do not exhibit the WAN port disable bug.

ALL newer hardware models v1.8 or above (from ~April 2012) is affected by this WAN port bug. Below is the code for the affected bootloader that disables the WAN port at boot after flashing.

root@tpl2:~# grep -a U-Boot /dev/mtd0ro | cut -d'I' -f1 U-Boot 1.1.4 (Feb 6 2012 - 17:03:51) U-Boot

  • Check of the TP-LINK firmware, ver. TL-WR1043ND_V1_120405 with a published date 2012/4/5: This firmware updates the bootloader code to a March 31, 2012 release date but has the same WAN port disabled on boot behavior as the Feb. 6, 2012 firmware, and so routers shipping with this firmware need the boot loader downgrade described below

U-Boot 1.1.4 (Mar 31 2012 - 10:40:21) U-Boot

Bootloader downgrade

:!: WAN port disable bug (inelegant) workaround. The older german stock firmware (v3.9.17/100331) does not feature this bug. The work around involves webreverting/downgrading to this older version and then reflashing OpenWrt.

  • Step 1 (optional, only required if OpenWrt is installed): If your WAN port is now disabled follow the guide here to web revert back to stock firmware.
  • Step 2: Install german stock firmware (v3.9.17) through the TP-Link web interface. Download the firmware file "wr1043nv1_de_3_9_17_up_boot(100331).bin". ( mirror). After the German firmware flash, the u-boot code on a v1.9 router should be downgraded to the Nov. 17, 2009 version:

grep -a U-Boot /dev/mtd0ro | cut -d'I' -f1

U-Boot 1.1.4 (Nov 17 2009 - 11:56:26) U-Boot

  • Step 3: Flash the correct OpenWrt firmware image according to your router model/version:!:. This should re-enable the WAN port.
http://rnd.rajven.net/firmware/

作者  | 2014-11-29 16:37:22 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

ref:
http://www.rfsystem.it/shop/download/SB_Creative_XFi_Pro_USB.pdf


Where to buy:
http://www.amazon.ca/gp/offer-listing/B0044DEDCA/ref=olp_tab_new?ie=UTF8&condition=new

Datasheet:
CS5345   104 dB, 24-Bit, 192 kHz Stereo Audio ADC
http://www.cirrus.com/en/pubs/proDatasheet/CS5345_F4.pdf
配合 For SDR 使用的便宜 Cheap and Neat ADC: CS5345, 104 dB, 24-Bit, 192 kHz Stereo Audio ADC, on Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Surround 5.1 PRO USB - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters 考牌

作者  | 2014-11-26 1:44:44 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

http://www.csrc.gov.cn/pub/zjhpublic/G00306202/201406/P020140630488720938517.pdf

作者  | 2014-11-21 18:53:29 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

为什么电脑的音频信号通过AUX口入车机有严重的干扰?

2014-11-14 7:43:17 阅读0 评论0 142014/11 Nov14


为什么电脑的音频信号通过AUX口入车机有严重的干扰?

共地干扰

ans1:
这个是共地的问题,我本身的工作就是做车机的
车机使用的音频放大器,尤其是现代的很多放大器,其音频输入公共端和电源地是分开的,AUX的公共端实际上悬浮于车机电源地(也就是外壳)的,这在汽车上使用是没有问题的,因为汽车上本身是个封闭的系统,但你用电脑的音频输出接到AUX问题就来了,电脑输出的音频地和车机的地之间是不连接的(或者说是通过电源进行远端连接的),这样就相当于一个大的回环,这个回环会接收电源产生的杂波产品音频干扰,这个问题我在开发车机的过程中多次遇到,把电脑输出的地端和车机外壳(或者是AUX两声道公共端和车机外壳)接在一起干扰就消失了,这个其实不是什么故障,车机在汽车上使用是没有问题的,在汽车上由于车体整体接地,此时AUX公共端悬浮反而有利于降低噪声。

ans2:
这种干扰多半是共地的问题,电脑机壳和功放的机壳已经连一起了,加上信号线的地,构成地回路了。
在处理这种问题的时候,可以试试通过安规电容连接音频和电源地,能保持隔离度并且能旁路高频


问题解决,音频线在接近车机插座处,把线的结缘层剥开,找到屏蔽层,就近与车机外壳接地,就一点干扰也没有了。

作者  | 2014-11-14 7:43:17 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

Behringer Mic200 diagram schematic, mic200 / mic100 ultragain

2014-11-10 10:24:04 阅读4 评论0 102014/11 Nov10

Behringer Mic200 diagram schematic

Behringer Mic200 diagram schematic, mic200 / mic100 ultragain - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters 考牌
 http://jeanlouis.ramel.free.fr/spip.php?article26
http://www.electronica-pt.com/esquema/func,startdown/id,15963/


ref:
http://schematic.digitalelectronics.name/aud.htm
http://www.paia.com/tubestuff.asp


作者  | 2014-11-10 10:24:04 | 阅读(4) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>


ADC CS5361


http://www.ixbt.com/multimedia/soundcard-duel-jan-2014.shtml


http://www.overclock.net/a/battle-of-kings-creative-x-fi-vs-asus-xonar

http://search.ncix.com/products/?sku=SY5238988

http://www.amazon.ca/s/?ie=UTF8&keywords=asus+xonar+u7


========================================================
Focusrite Forte
Cirrus Logic CS5381 AD converter 
the DAC is Cirrus Logic CS4398 
http://www.cirrus.com/en/pubs/proDatasheet/CS5381_F2.pdf
http://www.cirrus.com/en/pubs/proDatasheet/CS4398_F1.pdf

ref:
AKM
ak5381
http://pdf.datasheetcatalog.com/datasheet2/b/0fi9q2lr7i17phc5ljozy0kjwlfy.pdf


==========================================================================
Sound Blaster ZxR声霸卡
ZXR
Processor: 2X SoundCore3D, 1 for pure DAC out(main card)(includes mic in), 1 for pure ADC in(daughter card). Digital Stage EMI shielded from Analog stage.
Capacitors: 100% Nichicon Fine Gold
DAC: PCM 1794/PCM1798
ADC: PCM 4220
Opamp: Removable LME JRC 2114, 4971
Headphone AMP: 6120A2
SNR: 124dB
http://www.guru3d.com/articles-pages/soundblaster-zxr-review,9.html
http://www.ti.com.cn/cn/lit/ds/symlink/pcm4220.pdf


作者  | 2014-11-9 13:49:42 | 阅读(11) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

alva NANOFACE adc is WM8776

2014-11-9 13:05:16 阅读6 评论0 92014/11 Nov9


alva NANOFACE adc is WM8776 - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters 考牌
 
alva NANOFACE adc is WM8776 - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters 考牌
 

http://www.wolfsonmicro.com/documents/uploads/data_sheets/en/WM8776.pdf


========================================================================

ALESIS
IO|26 CS5361 

ALLEN&HEATH 
R16 AD CS5368 DA Burr-Brown PCM1404 Main I/O CS4271

APOGEE 
Ensemble CS4272 
DUET: CS4272/MICPRE TI PGA2500/ 1394AUDIO Oxfw971 
AD8000SE: A/D:AKM AK5391; D/A: Analog Devices AD1851 
Rosetta 200: A/D:CS5361 D/A: Analog Devices AD1852 
MiniDAC:AD1955 ARS 
MiniMe: A/D AKM 5380VT, D/A (monitoring) AKM 4380VT
AD-16X DAC CS4398 ADC CS5381 or CS5361 

ART 
Tube Fire8: adc-AK5384; dac-AK4358 

BENCHMARK
DAC1: D/A: Analog Devices AD1853 5532 opamp 

BEHRINGER
SRC2496:AKM AK5393 AK4393 JRC 458 

DIGIDESIGN
192 I/O PTHD: A/D:AKM AK5394A; D/A: AKM AK4394 
001 CS4223 CS4223 OPAMP - TL074 
002R: A/D:AKM AK5383vs D/A: AKM AK4393vs 
003 A/D CS5381 CS5361 D/A CS4392 
MBox AK5383 AK5383 TAS1020 
MBox2 Mini: ADC - CS5361 

ECLER
EVO5: A/D CS5366-CQZ and D/A CS4385 

ECHO AUDIO
Indigo DJx - AK4396 
Indigo IOx - AK4620B 
Indigo DJx - AK4396 
Indigo IOx - AK4620B 
AudioFire 2 (Newer models) - AK4620B 
AudioFire 2 (Older models) - AK4620A 
AudioFire 4 (Newer models) - AK4620B 
AudioFire 4 (Older models) - AK4620A 
AudioFire 8 - CS4272 
AudioFire 8a (Newer model w/ ADAT) - AK4620B 
AudioFire Pre8 - AK4620B 
AudioFire 12 (Newer models: FireWire ports' beveled edges pointing down) - AK4620B 
AudioFire 12 (Older models: FireWire ports' beveled edges pointing up) - CS4272 
Layla3G - CS4272 
Gina3G - CS42426 
Echo Gina24 A/D AK4393 D/A AK5383
Indigo dj - CS4392 
Indigo i/o - CS4272 
MiaMIDI - AK4528 

EGO Systems/ESI 
ESU1808 Akm Ak5384 ADC Akm Ak4358vq 
MAXIO EX8K: A/D:AKM AK5394A; D/A: AKM AK4395 
MaXiO 032e AK5394, AK4395 
Juli@: A/D:AKM AK5385A; D/A: AKM AK4358 

E-MU Systems 
0202 USB: CS4392 AK5385m 
0404 USB AK5385a AK4396 
TRACKER PRE AK5385, CS4392 
0404: PCM1804 AKM AK4395 
1820: PCM1804 CS4392 
1212m AK5394 CS4398 
1616m AK5394 CS4398 
1820M AK5394A CS4398 JRC2068 

FOCUSRITE
Saffire CS42428-CQ 
Saffire LE CS42432-DMZ 
Saffire 6 USB CS4272
Platinum 8 OctoPre AKM5383 AKM5383 
Saffire Pro CS4272 
Liquid Saffire 56 CS4272

KRK
Ergo A/D AK4620 D/A AK4396 ASRC AK4122 

LEXICON
fw810s CS4272-CZZ CS42426 dbx TypeIV 

LINE 6 
TonePort/Studio UX1/UX2 : AK4528
TonePort UX8 : CS4272
Pod X3 : CS4272

LUCID
AD9624 A/D:CS5396 
DA9624 D/A:CS5396 
ADA8824: A/D:AKM AK5392; D/A: AKM AK4324 

LYNX Studio 
TWO/L22: A/D:AKM AK5394A; D/A: Cirrus Logic CS4396 
AES16?AK4114x8 
AES16-SRC?AK4114x8?AD1896x4 
AURORA CS5381

MACKIE 
FIREWIRE CARD ONYX A/D AK5384 D/A AK4528 
ONYX 400/F 1200F A/D AK5385 D/A AK4358 

M-AUDIO 
Audiophile 192 AKM AK5385A AK4358 
Audiophile 2496 AK4528VF AK4528VF CS8427 
Delta44 & 66 AK4524 
Delta1010 A/D AK5383 D/A AK4393 
ProjectMix A/D AK5381 D/A AK4358 
Firewire Solo ADC AK5357?DAC AK4381 
Firewire 410 : Envy24 HT, AK4355/AK4381, AK5380 
FireWire 1814 Input 1&2 A/D AK5385A, Ins 3-8 A/D AK5381, D/A AK4358
Profire 610, 2626: AK4620 

MOTU 
MOTU 828 AK4321VF CS4223-KS OPAMPS - 4580 
MOTU 828 Mk2 AK4528*8/AK4382 DAC for main outs 
MOTU 2408 mk3 AKM AK4528VF
MOTU 828mk3 TI PGA2500,CS5364 8in CS5368, volume CS3308 8out AK4358 AK4382 MAIN AK4396 
MOTU 8pre AK5385 AK4382 
MOTU HD192 AK5394 
MOTU 896HD AKM 5385 
Motu Ultralite: AK4620AVF 
Motu Traveller: A/D AK5385AVS, sorry no info for D/a 

METRIC HALO

Mobile I/O 2882?DSP A/D AK5383 D/A AK4393 
ULN2: A/D is the AKM 5383 and D/A is the AKM 4393 
ULN8 AKM 5394 AKM 4395 
Lio-8 AD AK5394 DA AK4395 
MYTEK 
8X96:ADC - CS5396 (or CS8427?) DAC - CS5396 
Stereo192 ADC - AKM 5394A 
8x192 AD Burr Brown PCM4202 DA Analog Devices ad1955 


KRK 
Ergo DAC AKM4396 

NOVATION
nio 2 | 4(CS4272,AK4394) 

PRESONUS
Presonus Firebox ADC:AKM AK5384 DAC: AKM AK4358/ST Micro MC33078,33079 
PreSonus FireStudio 26in26out(8in8out)AK5384 AK4358?
PreSonus FIREPOD 10in10out(8in8out) AK5384 AK4358? 
MSR (monitor studio remote) for Presonus FireStudio WM8590GEDS 
Presonus Firestudio Mobile AD PCM4204 DA PCM4104

PRISMSOUND
Orpheus A/D CS5381 D/A CS4398, Mic pre PGA2500, Line ins OPA2134, Line outs venerable 5532 (TI ver), Headphone out OPA2134
DA-2 TDA 1547 
ADA-8XR AKM AK4395 

RME 
RME ADI-2: A/D:AKM AK5385 D/A: AKM AK4395 
RME ADI-8: A/D AK5392 D/A AD1852
RME ADI-8 DS: A/D:AKM AK5393A; D/A: Analog Devices AD1852 
RME Digi96/8 PST/PAD: A/D AK5383 D/A Analog Devices AD1852
RME HDSP 9632: A/D:AKM AK5385A; D/A: Analog Devices AD1852 
RME HDSPe AIO ADC - CS5361 DAC - AD1852 
RME FIREFACE 800 A/D AK5385 D/A AK4395(AK4396 since March 2005) 
RME FIREFACE 400 A/D D/A AK4620A 
RME FIREFACE UFX A/D CS5368 D/A PCM4104
RME Multiface 1: A/D D/A AK4528VF
RME Multiface 2: A/D D/A AK4620A

ROLAND
Edirol UA-101 USB 2.0 A/D CS5340 D/A AKM 4385 
EDIROL UA-25 DAC AK4385 ADC AK5381 DAI AK4114?USB TUSB3200 
EDIROL UA-1EX DAC AK4385 ADC AK5357 DAI AK4114 USB TUSB3200 
EDIROL FA66 AKM 4385VT CS5340 

SM PRO AUDIO
ADDA 192-S: A/D CS5381 D/A CS4398 

STEINBERG

MR816 AD AK5385BVF-E2 DA AK4358VQ 
Yamaha N-12 AD AKM AK5385 DA AKM AK4393 and AK4382A for AUX and phones. Discrete preamp -> JRC2068MD Op-amps for unbalancing -> insert jack -> NE5532DA for balancing before the ADC

TASCAM

TASCAM US-144 A/D AK5385 D/A AK4384 
TASCAM US-122L DAC AK4384 ADC AK5381 
TASCAM US-800 ADC: AKM 5359ET DAC: AKM 4384ET 

T.C.electronic 
TC KONNEKT 24D/live: AK4620b INA163 
Studio KONNEKT48 DA AK4359 AK4385, AD AK5358 AK5359 OPAMP JRC 2068 
TC Impact Twin AD/DA AK4620 Output opamps 4-NE5532.


TERRATEC 
terratec x24 phase cs42426 

UNIVERSAL AUDIO 
Apollo AD AKM AK5388EQ (Quad AD) DA CS4398 DA(Headphones) AK4480 Preamps x4 - PGA2500 

OTHER BRANDS
AQVOX USB 2 D/A MKII PCM17964 
Audioresearch DAC7 PCM1792 
Berkley Audio Design Alfa Dac AD1955A 
Bryston BDA-1 CS-4398 
Cambridge Audio Dac Magic WM8740 
Cary Audio Xciter Dac AK4399 
Lavry Da11 Analog Devices 1955 
Logitech Transporter AKM AK4396 
Matrix mini-i AD1955 
Musical Fidelity V-Dac Burr Brown DSD1792 
Northstar Extremo PCM1792 
Ps Audio Dac III: Burr Brown 1798 
PS Audio Perfect Wave DAC WM8741 
Stello Da-100 signature AK4395, AD1896 upsampler 
Sutra DAC 1 Burr-Brown 1740 
Weiss Dac2 Burr Brown PCM1792 
Weiss Dac 202 Sabre ESS9018 
Weiss Medea DAC AD1853

Cirrus Logic DACS

www.emu.com
http://www.etcetera.co.uk/products/E-MUCompare.htm
E-MU1212M pci-CS4398 (emu10k2/AK5394)
E/MU 1616 PCMCIA-CS4392 (?,PCM1804)
E/MU 1616M PCMCIA-CS4398-AK4396 (card) (?,AK 5394A)
E/MU 1616M PCI CS4392-AK4396 (card)(?,PCM1804)
E/MU 0202 usb-CS4392 (?,,?)
E/MU 1820-CS4392 (?,PCM1804)
E/MU 1820M-CS4398 (?,AK5394)

www.lynxstudio.com
http://www.lynxstudio.com/compare.html
Lynx22-CS4396 (?,AK5394)
Lynxtwo-CS4396 (?,AK5394)

www.creative.com
SoundBlasterAudigy4/DA-CS4382 (emu10k2/STAC9721?)
SoundBlasterX-Fi/DA-CS4382(X-FiAudioProcessor/WM8775)
SoundBlasterX-Fi/Platinum-CS4382 (X-FiAudioProcessor/WM8775)

Zhaolu 2.5c CS4398


Analog Devices DACS

www.rme-audio.com
Rme hammerfall-AD1852 (?,?)
Rme digi 96/8 PAD-AD1852 (?,AK5383)

Zhaolu 2.5a AD1852

Wolfson DACS

www.onkyo.com
SE-90PCI-WM8716 (Envy24MT)
SE-150PCI-WM8716/WM8776 (Envy24HT/WM8776)
SE-200PCI-WM8740/WM8776 (ENVY24HT/WM8776)

http://www.yystation.net/index.php?m...u=1092&id=2420
SQ714-WM8740 (Envy24 HT-S,?)

www.terratec.com
Aureon7.1/Space-WM8770 (Envy24HT/STAC9744)
Aureon7.1/Universe-WM8770 (Envy24HT/STAC9744)

www.kuroutoshikou.com
ENVY24HTS-PCI-WM8728 (Envy24HT-S/VT1616)
ENVY24HT-HG8PCI-WM8766 (Envy24HT/WM8776)

www.audiotrak.net
Prodigy 7.1 XT-WM8770 (ENVY24HT/WM8770)
Prodigy 7.1 hifi-WM8766 (ENVY24HT/WM8776)

Asahi Kasey DACS

www.emu.com
E-MU0404 usb-AK4395 (older)-AK4396 (new) (emu10k2/PCM1804)

www.terratec.com
PHASE22-AK4524 (Envy24HT-S/AK4524)
DMX6Fire/24-96-AK4524 (Envy24/AK4524)

www.club-3d.com
Theatron dts-AK4396 (CMI8788,?)

www.bluegears.com
B-Enspirer-AK4396 (CMI8788,?)

www.sondigo.com
Inferno 7.1-AK4396 (CMI8788,?)

www.audiotrak.net
Prodigy192-AK4396 (Envy2HT/AK5353)
PRODIGY HD2-AK4396 (ENVY24HT)

www.m-audio.com
AudioPhile2496forPCI-X-AK4528 (Envy24/AK4528)
AudioPhile192-AK4358 (Envy24HT/AK5385)
M-Audio Firewire 410-AK4355/AK4381 (Envy24 HT,AK5380)(Review)
M-Audio firewire audiofile-AK4628 (?,AK4628)
DELTA1010LT-AK4524 (Envy24/AK4524)
M-Audio Delta 1010-AK4393 (Via Envy24,AKM AK5383) (review)
M-Audio Delta 44 & 66-AK4524 (Envy24,AKM AK4524) (Review)
M-Audio Revolution 5.1/7.1-AK4358VQ (Envy24GT,AK5365VQ) (Review)

www.esi-pro.com
Juli@-AK4358 (Envy24HT-S/AK5385)
Waveterminal U24-AK4524 (TI TAS1020A ,AK4524)

www.auzentech.com
Auzen X-Meridian 7.1-AK4396VF (CMI8788,AK5385)

Who want contribute adding more specs please do it, I will publish the list with additions.
In particular I would know the same informations about firewire soundcards, like:

Echo Audiofire2
Edirol FA66
Yamaha GO44
M-Audio firewire solo
Terratec phase x24
Presonus firebox
Presonu inspire 1394
Esi-Quatafire
RME fireface400

Thanks

Links to dacs and cards comparisons:
http://www.audiodesignguide.com/DAC_final/DacFinal.html
http://archive.avsforum.com/avs-vb/s...hreadid=236215
http://www.head-fi.org/forums/showth...ghlight=AD1852

Links to dacs-adcs with characteristics by manufacturers:
Cirrus Logic
http://www.cirrus.com/en/pubs/presen...converters.pdf
Wolfson dacs
http://www.wolfsonmicro.com/productListings/dacs/
Texas Instruments dacs
http://focus.ti.com/paramsearch/docs...ngPage=null#rt
Analog Devices dacs
http://www.analog.com/en/subCat/0,28...0%255F,00.html
Asahi Kasey
http://www.asahi-kasei.co.jp/akm/en/product/audio.html

Link to a database with a lot of audio products using dac chips inside:
http://members.cox.net/alexhardware/IC_database1.htm

A GREAT thanks to all contributors


作者  | 2014-11-9 13:05:16 | 阅读(6) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

Steinberg UR22 便宜的原因: Cirrus Logic CS4270

2014-11-9 12:15:28 阅读8 评论0 92014/11 Nov9


http://personalaudio.ru/detail/yamaha_steinberg_ur_22_/

The Steinburg UR-22 is using a cirrus logic cs4270 for its DAC and ADC


http://www.cirrus.com/en/products/cs4270.html


http://forum.ixbt.com/topic.cgi?id=90:3308

http://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=91&t=83830


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

focusrite scarlett 2i4:
xmos+
CS4272可是前代旗舰AD/DA芯片,指标:采样24/192 动态114dB THD+N -100dB 差分(平衡)
 http://www.cirrus.com/en/pubs/proDatasheet/CS4272_F1.pdf
http://forum.recordingreview.com/f8/focusrite-scarlett-2i2-61754-print/
http://www.hifizine.com/2012/12/focusrite-scarlett-2i2/


AKM AK4384ET 指标:采样24/192 动态106dB THD+N -94dB单端(非平衡)


---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mackie Onyx Blackjack
Mackie really wanted to offer a quasi-professional product. These converters CS5368 Cirrus Logic. This chip 114dB which eliminates the jitters conversion is sold alone 20eur by Cirrus Logic. (Http://fr.mouser.com/search/refine.aspx?Msid=67410000&Mkw=CS5368-DQZ) 
The UR22 does not use the excellent chips its big sister the MR816 but the most low-end chip Cirrus Logic CS4270 worth the 4EUR (http://fr.mouser.com/search/refine.aspx? Msid = 67410000 & CS4270-CZZ Mkw =). 
Finally to complete the comparison on paper, Mackie is USB1.1 and Steinberg usb2. Bandwidth USB1 .1 allows full duplex recording 24bit 48kHz but not 96kHz. Apart from the frequency of sampling is the only difference.


http://en.audiofanzine.com/external-audio-interface/mackie/onyx-blackjack/user_reviews/r.119642.html
http://linux-audio.4202.n7.nabble.com/Support-for-Steinberg-UR22-Yamaha-USB-chipset-0499-1509-td82888.html

作者  | 2014-11-9 12:15:28 | 阅读(8) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

the Hitchhikers.Guide.To.The.Galaxy

2014-11-9 10:35:22 阅读6 评论0 92014/11 Nov9

http://www.ebooktrove.com/top_ten/DouglasAdams_TheHitchhikerTrilogy_5Books1ShortStory.pdf

作者  | 2014-11-9 10:35:22 | 阅读(6) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

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