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[置顶] 窝洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类

2010-3-13 18:15:18 阅读2529 评论0 132010/03 Mar13

G.V.Black分类

龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - godsonx的博客

 

 

 考题:

哪些洞型可以出现在任何牙上?

 

答案:   Class I, Class V & Class VI   一类, 五类和六类洞

 

 

Cavity classification standardized methods of recording the need for restoration exist to facilitate communication among clinicians, researchers, and dental educators. The most commonly accepted means of classifying cavities is by the names of the surfaces involved. Cavity type is classified further based on the type of treatment and anatomical area involved. This classification, developed by Dr. G. V. Black in 1908, is designated by Roman numerals as Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV, Class V, and Class VI (this is the only category that has been added to his original classification system). Note: It is important to remember that the classification relates to location and not size of the cavity.

#  Class I cavities -> involve the pits and fissures, while all other classifications involve smooth surfaces
of the teeth.
      #  Class II cavities -> involve the proximal surfaces and occlusal surfaces of premolars and molars.
      #  Class III cavities -> involve the proximal surfaces of incisors and canines that do not involve the
incisal angle.
      #  Class IV cavities -> are located on the proximal surface of incisors and canines and do involve
the incisal angle.
      #  Class V cavities -> are on the facial or lingual surface of ail teeth and do not involve a pit or fissure.
      #  Class VI cavities -> are on the incisal edges of anterior teeth or on the occlusal cusp heights of
posterior teeth.

** Remember: The best method for definitive detection of incipient carious lesions on the interproximal surfaces of posterior teeth (distal surface of canines through molars) is by bite-wing radiographs. 

 

 

 

I 类洞:为发生于所有牙齿的发育窝、沟内的龋损所制备的洞形。包括磨牙[牙合]面窝沟洞,磨牙颊(舌)面的颊(舌)沟洞,前磨牙的[牙合]面窝沟洞,上前牙的腭面窝洞。

II 类洞:为发生于后牙邻面的龋损所制备的洞形。包括前磨牙的邻面洞、邻[牙合]面洞和邻颊(舌)面洞,磨牙的邻[牙合]面洞和邻颊(舌)面洞及邻面洞。

III类洞:为发生于前牙邻面未损及切角的龋损所制备的洞形。包括切牙、尖牙的邻面洞、邻腭(舌)面洞、邻唇面洞。

IV类洞:为发生于前牙邻面并损及切角的龋损所制备的洞形。包括切牙、尖牙的邻唇腭(舌)面洞,目前含义延伸及牙外伤引起切角缺损的洞。

V类洞:为发生与所有牙齿的颊(唇)、舌(腭)面近龈1/3牙面的龋损所制备的洞形。包括前牙、前磨牙、磨牙在颊或舌面的近龈1/3洞。

 

窝洞定义、结构、各部名称、代表符号

(1)窝洞定义:牙齿龋洞去净龋坏组织,经手术制备的具有特定形状的洞。要求填入充填材料后,充填材料及牙齿均能承担正常咀嚼

压力,不折断、不脱落。

(2)窝洞结构:窝洞由洞壁、洞角及洞缘角构成。


    1)洞壁:组成窝洞的内面统称为壁。按其所在牙面部位命名如近中壁、远中壁、颊壁、舌壁、龈壁、髓壁、轴壁等。

    2)洞角:两个洞壁相交构成的角称为线角(Line angles),三个洞壁相交形成的角称为点角(Point angles)。线角及点角的命名

均以构成他们的各洞壁名称联合命名,如颊轴线角、轴髓线角、颊龈轴点角、舌龈轴点角等。

    3)洞缘角(Cavosurface Margin):洞侧壁与牙齿表面的相交线称为洞缘角,也称为洞面角。


(3)窝洞的名称及符号

    1)窝洞的名称:可根据窝洞所在的牙面命名,如牙合面洞、近中洞、近中牙合面洞等;也可以窝洞所包括牙面数命名,如单面

洞、复面洞等。

    2)窝洞的符号:以所在牙面英文名称的第一个字母或前两个字母作为符号,具体如下:

    切端为I(incisive S.)颊侧为B(buccal S.)

    舌侧为L(lingual S.)牙合面为O(occlusal S.)

    唇侧为La(labial S.)近中面为M(medial S.),远中面为D(distal S.)等。


=======================================================================================

Tooth Preparation Walls
---------------------------
Internal Wall. An internal wall is a prepared (cut) surface that does not extend to the external tooth
surface (Fig. 6-10).

Axial Wall. An axial wall is an internal wall parallel
with the long axis of the tooth (see Fig. 6-10).

Pulpal Wall. A pulpal wall is an internal wall that
is perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and
occlusal of the pulp (see Figs. 6-10 and 6-13 [p]).

External Wall. An external wall is a prepared (cut)
surface that extends to the external tooth surface. Such
a wall takes the name of the tooth surface (or aspect)
that the wall is toward (see Fig. 6-10).

Floor (or Seat). A floor (or seat) is a prepared (cut) wall that is reasonably flat and perpendicular to the
occlusal forces that are directed occlusogingivally (generally parallel to the long axis of the tooth).
Examples are the pulpal and gingival walls (see Fig. 6-10).
Such floors may be purposefully prepared to provide
stabilizing seats for the restoration, distributing the
stresses in the tooth structure, rather than concentrating
them. This preparation increases the resistance form (see
later) of the restored tooth against postrestorative fracture.
More regarding this type of resistance form is
presented in a later section.

Enamel Wall. The enamel wall is that portion of
a prepared external wall consisting of enamel (see
Fig. 6-2D).

Dentinal Wall. The dentinal wall is that portion of
a prepared external wall consisting of dentin, in which
mechanical retention features may be located (see
Fig. 6-2D).


龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters
 
龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters
 
龋洞分类 - G.V.Black Cavity classification 分类 - godsonx - NDEB Board Busters



==================================================================================================



洞形设计
--------------

外形设计

窝洞外形的范围应包括所有病变组织和可疑的点隙裂沟,外形应作预防性扩展,邻面侧壁应扩展到接触点以外的自洁区,龈壁应置于平齐眼乳突边缘健康的牙休组织上。窝洞外形线应为圆缓曲线,以减少应力集中。



抗力形设计
-----------
抗力形是使充填体和余留牙能够承受咬合力而不会破裂的特定形状。Ⅰ、Ⅱ类洞对抗力形要求较高,V类洞要求可稍低。
1、洞形深度:窝洞底必须建立在牙本质上,后牙洞深应达釉牙本质界下0.2---0.5mm,前牙应达釉牙本质界的牙本质面。
2、盒状洞形:窝洞应制备成盒状,即除特殊情况外,要洞底平,侧壁平直与洞底相垂直,各侧壁之间相互平行。洞底各点线角应明确而圆钝,使应力不集中,要力均匀分布。
3、梯阶形成:复面洞的洞底应形成梯阶以均匀分担咬合力,其中龈壁与髓壁平行,轴壁与近、远中侧壁平行,各壁交接呈直角,点、线角圆钝。注意龈壁一定要与轴壁垂直,切勿形成向龈方的斜面。
4、无基釉、脆弱牙体处理:窝洞釉质壁应与釉柱排列方向平行,洞口不能留有无基釉;对脆弱的牙尖牙嵴,应适当降低高度,减轻要力负担。



固位形设计
-----------
固位形是使充填体能保留于洞内,承受更力后不移位、不脱落的特定形状。当充填材料与牙体组织无粘结力时,充填体的固位主要靠密合的摩擦力和一定的机械样合力。
1、侧壁固位:相互平行且具有一定深度的侧壁,可使充填体通过和洞壁的密合摩擦而达固位目的。
2、倒凹固位:单面洞可以在牙尖下制备倒凹增强固位,制备倒凹时要防止伤及髓角,因此洞底深度超过釉牙本质界0.5mm以上,应先垫底再制倒凹,较深的洞可以不制倒凹,使用粘结性强的修复材料时也可不制倒凹。
3、 鸠尾固位:鸠尾固位用于复面洞的固位,它借助鸠尾峡部的锁扣作用,防止充填体水平方向的脱出。鸠尾峡必须有一定的深度和宽度,宽度在后牙一般为颊舌牙尖间距的1/3。位置应在洞底轴髓线角的靠中线侧。鸠尾的宽度必须大于鸠尾峡。
4、 梯形固位:也是复面洞采用的固位形,邻雯面洞的邻面设计为龈方大于雯方的梯形,防止充填体呈垂直方向脱出。梯形的外形应作预防性扩展,梯形深度应达釉牙本质界下0.2一0.5mm。




便利形设计
-------------
在维护外形的基础上,在需要的地方略加修整,便于器械和充填物能够达到窝洞的任何部位。要达此目的,可选用适当器械,对洞形作适当延伸;当洞外形位于不健康牙龈处时,可用分离器或木楔分离牙龈,必要时切除部分牙龈。





-----------------------------------------------------

预备步骤

窝洞预备的基本步骤
1、开扩洞口或寻人口:病变部位较隐蔽的龋洞,应首先开扩洞口或寻人口,使龋洞充分暴露或为手术操作形成通路,便于观察和进行操作。可用裂钻或球钻去除洞缘的无基釉质,依病变范围开扩,或用裂钻从龋洞一侧作沟,以形成手术通路。
2、去除腐质:病变范围较大时,应先去除腐质。可先用挖匙除去洞内食物残渣和大部分腐质,然后用球钻将洞缘周围腐质除尽,最后除尽洞底腐质。洞底近髓腔处的少量软化牙本质的去留,应视实际情况而定。
3、设计并制备洞形:窝洞的洞缘线构成窝洞外形。虽然各类窝洞都有基本的外形要求,但洞形的制备还应兼顾病变破坏的范围。腐质除尽后,应依病变范围设计窝洞外形。窝洞应包括所有的病变部位,其颊(唇)、舌壁应达自洁区。窝洞的形态应符合固位形和抗力形的基本原则。制备过程中不可过多磨除健康的牙体组织。
4、修整洞形、清洗窝洞:完成洞形制备后,应去除洞内牙本质碎屑,仔细检查窝洞各部是否腐质已除尽,抗力形、固位形是否符合要求。不符合要求时应进一步去除腐质、修改洞形至达到要求。最后修整洞缘釉质,使与釉柱排列方向一致,并彻底清洗窝洞,除去所有碎屑。
5、窝洞消毒:窝洞预备后洞内牙本质小管中不可避免地会有少量细菌残留,理想的消毒药物,既可杀灭小管中的细菌,又不致损伤牙髓,对窝洞的消毒无疑有益。但目前所用的消毒药物尚不能达到上述要求。因此,除尽腐质远比消毒窝洞重要。除尽腐质即可除去绝大部分细菌,即使有少量细菌残留,由于充填修复后的环境不利细菌生长,经一定时间后也会逐渐丧失活动能力或死亡。
I类洞的制备
I类洞多为单面洞,但当龋损波及颊、舌侧面时,应制成复面洞。单面洞应底平、壁直,窝洞深度达釉牙本质界处。较深的龋损不必要求窝洞底平整,在去尽腐质后可借助垫底形成平底。复面洞时,颊面或舌面窝洞的龈壁应与牙长轴垂直,其近远中和颊舌宽度均不小于1.5mm。近、远中壁相互平行并垂直于龈壁,轴壁与龈壁垂直。要面鸠尾固位形的洞形要求同单面洞。鸠尾峡的宽度不小于1.5mm,用高速气涡轮牙钻(裂钻)沿颊沟或舌沟向更面中央窝沟或远中窝沟扩展形成鸠尾形。洞底髓壁与轴壁垂直,形成梯阶。
Ⅱ类洞的制备
Ⅱ类洞依病变破坏范围可制备单面洞或复面洞。当病变已累及接触区时,应制备复面洞;若病变未累及接触区,为避免过多磨除健康的牙齿组织,可从邻面制备单面洞;如果从邻面操作极为困难,也可制成复面洞,从更面进行操作。Ⅱ类洞多数情况下需制备成复面洞。
邻面部分制备:用裂钻从舌面边缘蜻处开扩洞口,钻轴与更面垂直,洞口的大小与邻面破坏范围一致。将邻面洞制备成盒状洞形,龈壁与轴壁垂直,宽度不超过2mm。颊舌壁位于自洁区并在要方略靠拢,使龈方颊舌壁间距略大于雯方。
Ⅲ类洞的制备
视病变范围的大小和邻面的存在与否可备成单面洞或复面洞。
1、单面洞的制备:病变范围较小,龋洞的颊、舌壁有一定厚度且同时伴有龋损侧邻牙缺失,可制备单面洞。
1.1 用倒锥钻从邻面去除龋损腐质。
1.2 按单面洞制备方法将窝洞制备成与患牙邻面外形相一致的三角形,洞底与牙面形态一致呈凸形,深度达釉牙本质界即可。
1.3 可在唇轴舌点角处制作倒凹,倒凹位于釉牙本质界下约0.5毫米处的牙本质中。
2、复面洞的制备:若前牙邻面龋损破坏范围大,或龋损侧邻牙存在,无备洞操作空间,须制备复面洞。
2.1 视龋损破坏范围及方向确定从舌侧或唇侧扩大洞口,如唇侧未遭破坏则尽量从舌侧人口。
2.2 用裂钻从舌面边缘峰处开扩洞口,洞口的切龈向宽度应与邻面破坏范围一致。邻面洞形与单面洞相同。
2.3 用裂钻从邻面约lmm深处向舌侧窝扩展形成鸠尾形,裂钻的长轴应与舌面垂直。舌面窝洞的洞形与I类洞相同。鸠尾一般不过中线,其切龈宽度约为2.5mm。切牙的鸠尾应不损伤切嵴、对侧的边缘嵴和舌隆突;由于切牙的唇舌径较小,制作鸠尾固位形时,不可加深窝洞,以免降低牙齿的抗力和意外穿髓。舌面洞底(髓壁)与邻面洞底(轴壁)互相垂直并形成梯阶。
IV类洞的制备
因受银汞合金充填材料性能所限,目前一般不用银汞合金修复IV类洞而改用复合树脂类修复材料。
V类洞的制备
1、用小号倒锥钻从唇、颊侧备洞,钻针应垂直于牙面,深度约达釉牙本质界处的牙本质中。
2、洞外形呈肾形,洞底呈凸面,与牙面平行。
3、龈壁与洞底垂直,可在轴龈线角或轴妥线角处作倒凹以增进固位。

作者  | 2010-3-13 18:15:18 | 阅读(2529) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

To avoid jeopardizing the integrity of the NDEB exams. MOST high yield questions are hidden.

为了避免对考试的负面影响, 大部分高分考题将会隐藏。


您在此阅读到的医学相关文字和图片资料均为自学用途, 不能确保时效性和正确性, 请勿对号入座对自身或者他人疾患行使诊治。   谢谢!!


Please be informed that ALL material from this blog pertaining to medical purpose is for SELF study !  Please consult your own dentist,  physician or specialist!

作者  | 2010-6-3 2:15:40 | 阅读(135) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

NDEB AFK, ACS, ACJ  是否让您觉得是一座座难以逾越的大山?
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mail to: 
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NDEB AFK one-on-one tutoring (Vancouver)

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作者  | 2014-9-20 20:50:36 | 阅读(43) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

加个壳, 几毛钱的驻极体话筒就可以卖几千倍的价钱

2014-10-24 17:04:14 阅读0 评论0 242014/10 Oct24

Omnidirectional Condenser Microphone

Based on a small electret condenser capsule, the ECM8000 omnidirectional mic is billed as a measurement mic due to the flat frequency response of the capsule. In combination with appropriate test hardware, it can be used to benchmark loudspeakers, diagnose room modes, and so on.

Unsubstantiated reports state that the mic is, or was, manufactured by Tenlux.

The microphone body is physically identical to a 6mm measurement omni made by MBHO, the MBNM 550 EL. Another mic sharing this body is the Audix TR40.

Harvey Gerst, 2001

[The ECM8000s] are identical to the Audix TR-40, except in 3 areas: They’re silver, not black, they have gold XLR contacts, and they say Behringer on the barrel, not Audix. The plastic storage box is almost identical to the Audix as well (except a little taller). Listening to the self noise and sensitivity, they seem to be absolutely identical to the Audix TR-40.

The capsule has been reported to look like a Panasonic WM60-A, although Scott Dorsey has stated “it’s not a Panasonic capsule,” and further, “the capsule the Behringer [ECM8000] uses is a Chinese knockoff of the Japanese capsule design that [the] Earthworks [QTC1] uses. It’s a surprisingly good knockoff, though, considering it probably costs less than a quarter.”

The same rec.pro.audio exchange revealed that the ECM8000 (and QTC1/QTC40) have high levels of self-noise, in the neighborhood of 22-23 dB:

Norbert Hahn

The ECM 8000 has almost white noise between 300 Hz and 15 kHz, dropping then with 6 dB per octave. Between 300 Hz and 30 Hz the self noise rises by 18 dB at lower frequencies. Thus, the self noise of the ECM 8000 sounds like a mixture of pink and white noise.

Reports around the web indicate that Behringer has released two versions of this mic, one with a transformer and balanced output and the other with an integrated circuit-based, transformerless output. No model number or serial number designation has been made to identify this design change.12

An extensive and popular thread on homerecording.com details a monthlong odyssey by Marik (Mark Fouxman) to improve the ECM8000; see the sidebar link or jump to page 5 to read the results… unfortunately, the thread is, at this point, surprisingly unsatisfying in that the links to the sound clips are failing and there’s no real review of the modded mic.

See also the schematic for Marik’s ECM8000 mod, formerly hosted here (the link died in early 2011):
http://www.prodigy-pro.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=3626&postdays=0&postorder=asc&highlight=ecm8000&start=27

The mic ships in a hard case with a mic clip.



Read more: http://recordinghacks.com/microphones/Behringer/ECM8000#ixzz3H3FDqMIc

作者  | 2014-10-24 17:04:14 | 阅读(0) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

智障 (MR)/ 智力障碍(MR)/ 智力缺陷 分级

2014-10-20 21:30:45 阅读6 评论0 202014/10 Oct20

智力缺陷分级

智力障碍又称智力缺陷,一般指的是由于大脑受到器质性的损害或是由于脑发育不完全从而造成认识活动的持续障碍以及整个心理活动的障碍。 由于遗传变异、感染、中毒、头部受伤、颅脑畸形或内分泌异常等有害因素造成胎儿或婴幼儿的大脑不能正常发育或发育不完全,使智力活动的发育停留在某个比较低的阶段中,称为智力迟滞。 由于大脑受到物理、化学或病毒、病菌等因素的损伤使原来正常的智力受到损害,造成缺陷,则称痴呆。

In recent decades, the phrases "mental retardation", "mentally retarded", and "retarded" initially used in a medical manner, are regarded as derogatory and politically incorrect much like moronimbecilecretindolt and idiot, formerly used as scientific terms in the early 20th century. On October 5, 2010, President Barack Obama signed Senate Bill 2781, known as "Rosa's Law", which changed references in many Federal statutes that referred to "mental retardation" to referinstead to "intellectual disability".[11]

一般依据IQ适应性行为缺陷将MR分为轻度、中度、重度和极重度四级。

1、轻度MR,精神病学又称愚笨,IQ为50~70。适应性行为轻度缺陷,早年发育较正常儿略迟缓且不象正常儿那样活泼,对周围事物缺乏兴趣,做事或循规蹈距或动作粗暴,言语发育略迟,抽象性词汇掌握少,分析能力差,认识问题肤浅,学习成绩较一般,儿童能背诵课文,但不能正确运用算术应用题。通过特殊教育可获得实践技巧和实用的阅读能力,长大后可作一般性家务劳动和简单的具体工作。遇事缺乏主见,依赖性强,不善于应付外界的变化,易受他人的影响和支配,能在指导下适应社会。

2、中度MR,又称愚鲁,IQ为35~49。适应性行为中度缺陷,整个发育较正常儿迟缓,语言功能发育不全,吐词不清,词汇贫乏,只能进行简单的具体思维,抽象概念不易建立,对周围环境辨别能力差,只能认识事物的表面和片断现象,阅读和计算方面不能取得进步。经过长期教育和训练可以学会简单的人际,基本卫生习惯,安全习惯和简单的手工技巧。

3、重度MR,又称痴愚,IQ为20~34。适应性行为重度缺陷,早年各方面发育迟缓,发音含糊,言语极少,自我表达能力极差,抽象概念缺乏,理解能力低下,情感幼稚,动作十分笨拙,有一定的防卫能力,能躲避明显的危险。经过系统的习惯训练可养成简单的生活和卫生习惯,但生活需要他人照顾,长大以后可在监督之下做些固定和最简单的体力劳动。

4、极重重MR,又称白痴,IQ低于20。适应性行为极度缺陷,对周围一切不理解,缺乏语言功能,最多会喊“爸”“妈”等。但并不能真正辨认爸妈,常为无意识的嚎叫,缺乏自我保护的本能,不知躲避明显的危险,情感反应原始,感觉和知觉明显减退,运动功能显著障碍,手脚不灵活或终生不能行走,常有多种残疾和癫痫反复发作,个人生活不能处理,多数早年夭折,幸存者对手脚的技巧训练可以有反应。

临床表现
1.感知速度减慢,接受视觉通路的刺激比听觉刺激容易些;
2.注意力严重分散,注意广度非常狭窄;
3.记忆力差,经无数次重复方能学会一些知识,若不重复学习,又会忘得一干二净;
4.言语能力差,只能讲简单的词句;
5.思维能力低,缺乏抽象思考能力、想像力和概括力,更不能举一反三;
6.基本无数字概念,靠机械记忆能学会简单的加减计算;
7.情绪不稳,自控力差;
8.意志薄弱,缺乏自信;
9.交往能力差,难以学会人际间交往。
诊断标准
1.智力障碍儿童的智力显著低于正常人的平均智力水平。正常人的平均智商为100。当一个儿童的智商为100时表示智力正常,假如一个儿章的智商在70分以下,他的智力就被称为“显著低于”平均水平(简化为“智商低于70分”)。智商低于70分的儿童,在100个同龄儿童中仅有两个。
2.智力障碍的发病通常在发育年龄阶段,具体讲在18周岁以前。这一条规定将发育期出现的智力障碍与成年后各种原因造成的智力障碍进行了区别。智力障碍的发病率一般不超过2%。有的智力障碍儿童同时伴随一定程度的异常行为和心理疾病,也会影响他的日常社会生活。根据新的发展趋势,人们越来越重视智力障碍儿童的社会适应障碍问题,因为社会适应障碍直接影响到他们个人功能和如何参与社会生活的问题。
3.智力障碍儿童在日常社会生活适应方面具有明显的障碍。小年龄的智力障碍儿童在日常生活中表现为动作、语言发展迟缓,不会人际交往,上幼儿园或小学比较困难。

Terminology

Terms that denote mental deficiency have been subjected to the euphemism treadmill. The several traditional terms that long predate psychiatry are simple forms of abuse in common usage today; they are often encountered in such old documents as books, academic papers, and census forms (for example, the British census of 1901 has a column heading including the terms imbecile and feeble-minded).

Negative connotations associated with these numerous terms for intellectual disability reflect society's attitude about the condition. Some elements of society seek neutral medical terms, while others want to use such terms as weapons of abuse.

Today, new words like special or challenged are replacing the term retarded. The term developmental delay is popular among caretakers and parents of individuals with intellectual disability because delay suggests that a person is slowly reaching his or her full potential rather than being disabled.[citation needed]

Usage has changed over the years and differed from country to country. For example, mental retardation in some contexts covers the whole field but previously applied to what is now the mild MR group. Feeble-minded used to mean mild MR in the UK, and once applied in the US to the whole field. "Borderline intellectual functioning" is not currently defined, but the term may be used to apply to people with IQs in the 70s. People with IQs of 70 to 85 used to be eligible for special consideration in the US public education system on grounds of intellectual disability.[citation needed]

  • Cretin is the oldest and comes from a dialectal French word for Christian.[35] The implication was that people with significant intellectual or developmental disabilities were "still human" (or "still Christian") and deserved to be treated with basic human dignity. Individuals with the condition were considered to be incapable of sinning, thus "christ-like" in their disposition. This term is not used in scientific endeavors since the middle of the 20th century and is generally considered a term of abuse. Although cretin is no longer in use, the term cretinism is still used to refer to the mental and physical disability resulting from untreated congenital hypothyroidism.
  • Amentia has a long history, mostly associated with dementia. The difference between amentia and dementia was originally defined by time of onset. Amentia was the term used to denote an individual who developed deficits in mental functioning early in life, while dementia included individuals who develop mental deficiencies as adults. During the 1890s, amentia meant someone who was born with mental deficiencies. By 1912, ament was a classification lumping "idiots, imbeciles, and feeble minded" individuals in a category separate from a dement classification, in which the onset is later in life.
  • Idiot indicated the greatest degree of intellectual disability, where the mental age is two years or less, and the person cannot guard himself or herself against common physical dangers. The term was gradually replaced by the termprofound mental retardation (which has itself since been replaced by other terms).
  • Imbecile indicated an intellectual disability less extreme than idiocy and not necessarily inherited. It is now usually subdivided into two categories, known as severe intellectual disability and moderate intellectual disability.
  • Moron was defined by the American Association for the Study of the Feeble-minded in 1910, following work by Henry H. Goddard, as the term for an adult with a mental age between eight and twelve; mild intellectual disability is now the term for this condition. Alternative definitions of these terms based on IQ were also used. This group was known in UK law from 1911 to 1959/60 as feeble-minded.
  • Mongolism was a medical term used to identify someone with Down syndrome. The Mongolian People's Republic requested that the medical community cease use of the term as a referent to intellectual disability. Their request was granted in the 1960s, when the World Health Organization agreed that the term should cease being used within the medical community.
  • In the field of special educationeducable (or "educable intellectual disability") refers to ID students with IQs of approximately 50–75 who can progress academically to a late elementary level. Trainable (or "trainable intellectual disability") refers to students whose IQs fall below 50 but who are still capable of learning personal hygiene and other living skills in a sheltered setting, such as a group home. In many areas, these terms have been replaced by use of "moderate" and "severe" intellectual disability. While the names change, the meaning stays roughly the same in practice.
  • Retarded comes from the Latin retardare, "to make slow, delay, keep back, or hinder," so mental retardation meant the same as mentally delayed. The term was recorded in 1426 as a "fact or action of making slower in movement or time." The first record of retarded in relation to being mentally slow was in 1895. The term retarded was used to replace terms like idiotmoron, and imbecile because retarded was not then a derogatory term. By the 1960s, however, the term had taken on a partially derogatory meaning as well. The noun retard is particularly seen as pejorative; as of 2010, the Special OlympicsBest Buddies and over 100 other organizations are striving to eliminate the use of the "r-word" (analogous to the "n-word") in everyday conversation.[36][37]
    The term mental retardation was a diagnostic term denoting the group of disconnected categories of mental functioning such as idiotimbecile, and moron derived from early IQ tests, which acquired pejorative connotations in popular discourse. The term mental retardation acquired negative and shameful connotations over the last few decades due to the use of the words retarded and retard as insults. This may have contributed to its replacement with euphemisms such as mentally challenged or intellectually disabled. While developmental disability includes many other disorders (see below), developmental disability and developmental delay (for people under the age of 18), are generally considered more polite terms than mental retardation.

United States

  • In North America intellectual disability is subsumed into the broader term developmental disability, which also includes epilepsyautismcerebral palsy and other disorders that develop during the developmental period (birth to age 18). Because service provision is tied to the designation 'developmental disability', it is used by many parents, direct support professionals, and physicians. In the United States, however, in school-based settings, the more specific term mental retardation or, more recently (and preferably), intellectual disability, is still typically used, and is one of 13 categories of disability under which children may be identified for special education services under Public Law 108-446.
  • The phrase intellectual disability is increasingly being used as a synonym for people with significantly below-average cognitive ability. These terms are sometimes used as a means of separating general intellectual limitations from specific, limited deficits as well as indicating that it is not an emotional or psychological disability.Intellectual disability may also refer to the outcome of traumatic brain injurylead poisoning, or dementingconditions such as Alzheimer's disease. It is not specific to congenital disorders such as Down syndrome.

The "American Association on Mental Retardation" continued to use the term mental retardation until 2006.[38] In June 2006 its members voted to change the name of the organization to the "American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities," rejecting the options to become the AAID or AADD. Part of the rationale for the double name was that many members worked with people with pervasive developmental disorders, most of whom do not have intellectual disability.[39]

作者  | 2014-10-20 21:30:45 | 阅读(6) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

Gmail sucks: 不要再用 Gmail

2014-10-20 10:37:56 阅读4 评论0 202014/10 Oct20

不要再用 Gmail 
Gmail   的服务器会打开你的邮件,  仔细查看然后删除某些内容,  最后留下残缺的部分. 

作者  | 2014-10-20 10:37:56 | 阅读(4) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

 

ANTI-SIDETONE CIRCUIT

The anti-sidetone circuit is an assemblage of transformers, resistors, and capacitors that perform a number of functions. The primary function is to reduce sidetone, which is the distracting sound of the speaker’s own voice coming through the receiver from the transmitter. The anti-sidetone circuit accomplishes this reduction by interposing a transformer between the transmitter circuit and the receiver circuit and by splitting the transmitter signals along two paths. When the divided signals, having opposite polarities, meet at the transformer, they almost entirely cancel each other in crossing to the receiver circuit. The speech signal coming from the other end of the line, on the other hand, arrives at the transformer along a single, undivided path and crosses the transformer unimpeded.

The anti-sidetone circuit also matches the low electrical impedance of the telephone instrument’s circuits to the higher electrical impedance of the telephone line. Impedance matching allows a more efficient flow of current through the system.


楼宇、电梯、医院、车站售票窗口等场合往往需要对讲系统,不同于广播系统,对讲系统一般属于半双工系统,其音频信号有发送和接收两种。对于音频输出输入信号是模拟信号的对讲系统,音频发送和接收信号可以分别占用一条信道,也可以在同一信道上传输。实际应用中,为了节约线材和安装方便,音频收发信号往往合用一条传输线。这时,发送信号也作用于自身的接收电路,如果不加处理,己方的喇叭就会播放出自己的声音,这个声音一旦大到一定程度,通话效果将大受影响。在使用对讲系统通话时,讲话者如果从己方受话器中听到很响的自己的声音,这种声音通常成为侧音[1]。在模拟音频收发信号共用一个信道的对讲系统中,为减小侧音对通话效果的影响,所有对讲设备均需增加消侧音电路。消侧音电路一方面让音频发送信号按一定比例出现在传输线上,另一方面让本方音频接收电路获得的信号足够小,不至于说话者从己方喇叭听到自己的声音。


http://www3.alcatel-lucent.com/bstj/vol17-1938/articles/bstj17-2-245.pdf

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01598147#page-1

http://oldphoneguy.net/BookletPDF/AntiSide6Rls.pdf

http://doc.telephonecollectors.info/dm/39jul_BLR_p347_Antisidetone_Circuit.pdf


http://www.google.com/patents/US3441684








作者  | 2014-10-19 14:27:55 | 阅读(9) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>


话说现在拥有高档耳机的用户越来越多, 某些型号的耳机对齿音 (sibilance ) 的表现会让人发狂。

俺就着一个实际的例子, 演示一下怎么通过适当的调节消除齿音 (sibilance ) 带来的不适感:

如何降低齿音 (sibilance ) 带来的不适感? - godsonx - NDEB Exam Busters 考牌
 

作者  | 2014-10-18 20:46:26 | 阅读(3) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

垃圾广告屏蔽

2014-10-15 17:02:16 阅读8 评论0 152014/10 Oct15

 

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作者  | 2014-10-15 17:02:16 | 阅读(8) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

Win7 64位系统电脑评分出现“无法度量视频播放性能”的解决方案
 
  当我们在更新显卡驱动之后,一般都会提示更新windows体验指数,不过在进行系统评分之后可能就会遇到无法计算您系统的windows体验指数,无法度量视频播放性能的提示,所以就无法完成windows7系统评分,那么遇到这种问题要怎么办呢?现在将这篇Win7 64位系统电脑评分出现“无法度量视频播放性能”的解决方案分享给大家。

  原因分析:

  有可能是页面文件设置过小或者页面文件放进了ramdisk虚拟出来的虚拟磁盘导致的。

  解决方法:

  1、 到驱动官网更新显卡驱动;
更新驱动
  2、进入C:\Windows\Performance\WinSAT中,查看该目录下面是否有媒体视频文件,如果没有的话就去下载这个文件夹备份补全缺失的文件;

  3、依次选择“系统属性-环境变量-系统变量”中的TEMP和TEM,查看这两个变量的路径是否为C:\Windows\Temp,如果不是的话就都修改为C:\Windows\Temp。
查看变量属性
  4、检查一下C:\Windows\System32中的“msmpeg2vdec.dll”、 “msmpeg2adec.dll”和“mfds.dll” 这三个文件名是不是被修改了,如果被修改的话,将文件恢复成如上名字即可。

作者  | 2014-10-13 15:04:44 | 阅读(11) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>


http://www.xuebuyuan.com/1985200.html

从协议的复杂程度上来看,就大致可以明白为啥这个标准至今仍然,至少在中国,默默无闻着。我们可以借SCORM来讨论一下基于互联网的教育。

老师是用户

    SCORM的目的在于开发完善的在线教材,然后老师拿到电子教材,只需按照上面的内容讲课,看上面的幻灯片,在上面考试,一切就搞定了。问题在于,这本教材的制作过程老师并没有参与其中,而是由其他的开发人员和老师开发的,老师希望在教材上进行修改,除了计算机专业的老师,几乎不可能。就算是计算机专业,老师也未必有那闲工夫去研究SCORM然后去开发,都在忙着收钱做项目。

    当然,传统的纸质书本也会有类似的问题,电子化之后,没有给老师更多的自由,反倒让老师觉得有一层束缚。我想对于不负责任的老师来说,这应该是一件大好事,因为啥都替你做好了,但果真是如此嘛?如果真的不需要老师做什么,大家直接看教程就完事了,我想高校一定能剩下很多钱。

    老师在课堂上出现的一个很大的必要性在于,他和学生的互动。而这种互动是这种写死的教材所做不到的。老师基于对学生的了解,可以选择更好的角度来讲解知识。因此,既然都已经电子化了,那么电子教材更多的应该是鼓励老师与学生的互动,鼓励老师对内容的思考,对教学方法的思考,同时鼓励学生对内容的思考。如果都替老师做好了,老师不被鼓励去自己思考,最终也不会产生多好的互动,因为讲解的东西自己可能都没有认真的研究过。

    这样,把老师真正当做一个用户,去体会老师的需求,老师会如何使用这些教材,把老师放在和学生同等地位上,产品才可能出色。

课堂元素的统一和分离

课堂上有诸多元素,列举一下:

    课件–讲解

    课本–思考

    作业–练习

    试卷–考核

    SCORM试图将这些都统一规范起来,到一份教程中,从课件到试卷,都给你弄好了。一方面老师没啥好参与的了,打击了老师的积极性,另一方面,这种大一统的方式,是否足够好呢?

    也就是说,在教程制作的过程中,制作人员就要把课堂上所有的情景都设想清楚,并统筹规划,我不否认让一些优秀的教学专家来规定这些能够比一般的老师做的好,但有多少教育专家,愿意花多少时间在这样复杂的教程制作上呢?对于这一点,我们可以参考Wikipedia的起源,他的前身就是希望通过让专家们进行写作,来制作电子百科全书,最终发现进度太慢,于是开始变成全民编辑的模式,充分利用了众人的智慧。

    课堂教学与Wikipedia的不同之处在于,课堂上有以上列出的四种元素。从用户是老师的角度看来,让老师参同时参与这四者未免太累,但参与其中某一项,还是可以的。也就是说,我们不去统筹的去考虑整个过程,而是将四个元素分别设计出四个产品,有针对性的对每一个产品进行设计,既可以分开使用,又可以整合起来使用,从而鼓励老师参与内容的编写,充分利用所有老师,甚至学生的智慧,让教程的制作也变成一个众包的过程,使得老师在参与制定的过程中,能够对所教的内容有更深的理解,同时也让教程能够被不同的老师订制,在公众版本中衍生出的分支,能够更好的结合老师及其学生的特色。

不同的产品

    因此,我们可以进一步对不同的产品做出一点初步的设想:

1. 课件

    一般老师做课件都使用powerpoint,但说实话,即使受过培训,做出来的也全是一页页的文字。基本在课堂上没有可读性,当做教材打出来看还可以。如果提供一种学习起来很容易的课件制作工具,让一个50岁的老教师都能一看就明白如何使用,我想是必要的。同时这种应用能够将文字展现的足够好,并引导用户不要全部都使用长篇大论的文字。可以考虑协作,但如果不能找到简明易懂的交互方式,那就只能作为辅助功能。

2. 课本

    课本一般还是纸质的合适,在中国谈论ipad属于脑抽类型。电子化的课本往往是word或者pdf,在PC屏幕上完全无法显示出点子书的特点,毕竟word和pdf是设计了用来将文字打印出来的。那么课本的电子化可以找一些其他的交互方式进行替代,充分利用电子设备的优势。不过,电子课本我想还是不能代替纸质课本的,可以用来辅助。我们院用SSD教程的时候,大家都把online教程给打印出来,我想这就是用户的选择。

3. 作业和考试

都属于试题,或许我应该用一个词来代替。我问同学你最想要的教育辅助工具是什么,很多人第一反应是:试卷分享平台!作为考核标准,考题是学生们追逐的对象,老师一般也会有题库,但不公开,害怕学生因为背题而不能真正弄懂书中的知识。这一方面显示出老师和学生都不信任考题是一种良好的考核方式,另一方面也告诉我们,没有更好的替代方案。那么我们要做的可能就是加快考题的流动速度,让学生更快的弄清楚题库,从而迫使老师不能依赖题库,不断的进行试题的创新,从而提高试题的质量。







=================================================================================================================




Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications for web-based e-learning. It defines communications between client side content and a host system (called "the run-time environment"), which is commonly supported by a learning management system. SCORM also defines how content may be packaged into a transferable ZIP file called "Package Interchange Format."[1]

SCORM is a specification of the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative from the Office of the United States Secretary of Defense.

SCORM 2004 introduced a complex idea called sequencing, which is a set of rules that specifies the order in which a learner may experience content objects. In simple terms, they constrain a learner to a fixed set of paths through the training material, permit the learner to "bookmark" their progress when taking breaks, and assure the acceptability of test scores achieved by the learner. The standard uses XML, and it is based on the results of work done by AICCIMS GlobalIEEE, and Ariadne.


SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model),译做共享内容对象参考模型共享组件引用模式,由ADL (Advanced Distribution Learning Initiative)集成各个学习标准制定而成。对数字内容教材的制作、内容开发提供一套共通的规范。ADL项目的主旨是在美国联邦政府各个部门、企业、军事、教育和培训机构之间协同合作,为模块化网上教育内容和有关的工具创造业务和市场。美国政府在订定SCORM时,特别强调不再重新研发轮子(Don't reinvent the wheel)。意思是不会提出新的规格,而是把重点摆在提出集成现有E-learning规范的架构模型。SCORM的演进由SCORM 1.0、SCORM 1.1、SCORM 1.2到SCORM 2004。

SCORM的实际内容包括内容包装模型(CAM),运行时环境支持(RTE)和排序与导航(SN)部分。三个部分呈层层递进关系,CAM模型是实现SCORM的最基本要求,现在主要的网络课程比如美国的BlackBoard、中国北京师范大学开发的4A、webcl等网络教学平台均已经支持CAM模型规范;而RTE创建在SCORM的内容包装模型基础之上,实现了对学习者过程性信息的采集和记录,为进一步实现排序和导航提供了基础;SN部分是SCORM最后提出的规范,然而因为其技术实现的复杂性和脱离真正的人类认知和教学设计情况,现在没有完全支持SN规范的网络教学平台。

SCORM事实上是教学设计、自适应学习等诸多教育理念跟计算机软件技术,尤其是分布式服务技术紧密结合的产物,其提供的学习者数据模型成为诸多网络平台所遵循的实际规范,是教学设计领域的里程碑式贡献!

它具有以下四项主要的功能:

  1. 可重复使用性(Reusability):
    同样的教材可以不去修改或经过稍微的修改,即可在不同地方重复去使用这份符合标准的教材,也可以轻易地合并教材于其他系统,或其他的教学内容。
  2. 容易取得教材(Accessibility):
    通过这个标准的平台,学习者可以很容易的通过Internet网络或局域网去访问教材,不受时间及空间的限制,轻易在本地或是远程读取课程的信息或内容,进而达到学习的目的。
  3. 教材的可互通性(Interoperability):
    因为SCORM的教材设计时,都遵循一个共同的标准设计出来的,因此教材可在不同平台上呈现出来,亦可通过不同的工具重新编辑。
  4. 教材的持续性(Durability):
    教材不会因为科技进步或标准异动而无法使用,也就是真的具有良好的兼容性。








SCORM versions[edit]

SCORM 1.1[edit]

SCORM 1.1 is the first production version. It used a Course Structure Format XML file based on the AICC specifications to describe content structure, but lacked a robust packaging manifest and support for metadata. Quickly abandoned in favor of SCORM 1.2.

SCORM 1.2[edit]

This was the first version that was widely used. It is still widely used and is supported by most Learning Management Systems.

SCORM 2004[edit]

This is the current version. It is based on new standards for API and content object-to-runtime environment communication, with many ambiguities of previous versions resolved. Includes ability to specify adaptive sequencing of activities that use the content objects. Includes ability to share and use information about the success status for multiple learning objectives or competencies across content objects and across courses for the same learner within the same learning management system. A more robust test suite helps ensure good interoperability.

SCORM 2004 editions[edit]

  • 3rd Edition (October 2005) — clarification of various conformance requirements and of the interaction between content objects and the runtime environment for sequencing; some new conformance requirements to improve interoperability.
  • 4th Edition Released (March 31, 2009) — more stringent interoperability requirements, more flexible data persistence.[2]

SCORM 2004 specification books[edit]

  • Overview — introduces SCORM and describes how the other books relate
  • Run-Time Environment — describes runtime API and data model used for communication between content objects and learning management systems
  • Sequencing and Navigation — describes how sequencing between learning activities is defined and interpreted
  • Compliance Requirements — detailed list of the conformance requirements that are verified by the ADL SCORM conformance test suite.

Tin Can API[edit]

The Tin Can API was finalized to version 1.0 in April 2013 and had its name changed to "Experience API" (xAPI) and "Next Generation SCORM." The Tin Can API solves many of the problems inherent with older versions of SCORM.[3] Just like SCORM, ADL is the steward of the Tin Can API. AICC with their CMI-5 will be using xAPI as their transport standard.[4]

The Tin Can API is a web service that allows software clients to read and write experiential data in the form of “statement” objects. In their simplest form, statements are in the form of “I did this”, or more generally “actor verb object”. More complex statement forms can be used. There is also a built-in query API to help filter recorded statements, and a state API that allows for a sort of “scratch space” for consuming applications. Tin Can API statements are stored in a data store called a Learning Record Store, which can exist on its own or within a Learning Management System.[5]

SCORM timeline[edit]

  • January 1999 — Executive Order 13111 signed tasking the DoD to develop common specifications and standards for e-learning across both federal and private sectors
  • January 2000 — SCORM Version 1.0
  • January 2001 — SCORM Version 1.1
  • October 2001 — SCORM Version 1.2
  • January 2004 — SCORM 2004 (1st Edition)
  • July 2004 — SCORM 2004 (2nd Edition)
  • June 2006 — Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 1322.26 Requiring DoD Use of SCORM
  • October 2006 — SCORM 2004 (3rd Edition)
  • March 2009 — SCORM 2004 (4th Edition)
  • 2009 — The first three specification books were adopted as technical reports by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36, standard number ISO/IEC TR 29163.
  • October 2010 — ADL awards a Broad Agency Announcement to Rustici Software to conduct research and community interviews in an effort to begin the creation of the next generation of SCORM. This is called Project Tin Can.
  • September 2011 — The initial draft of the next generation of SCORM (named the Tin Can API) is released.
  • June 2012 — .9 version of the Tin Can API is released.
  • August 2012 — .95 version of the Tin Can API is released.
  • April 2013 — 1.0.0 version of the Tin Can API is released. (Project name was changed to "Experience API" or xAPI)

作者  | 2014-10-12 8:49:56 | 阅读(18) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

NKJFK-GPHP7-G8C3J-P6JXR-HQRJR Windows 10 Technical Preview

2014-10-2 4:44:19 阅读22 评论0 22014/10 Oct2

Windows 10 Technical Preview

Product key: 


NKJFK-GPHP7-G8C3J-P6JXR-HQRJR


http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/preview-download?ocid=tp_site_downloadpage

作者  | 2014-10-2 4:44:19 | 阅读(22) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

紧急口粮

2014-9-22 21:43:05 阅读27 评论0 222014/09 Sept22

牛肉、鸡胸肉、火腿、熏鱼、肉馅条(Meat loaf)、辣通心面、贝类、蔬菜等多种口味的军粮可选,适应美军这个多民族、多种族、多宗教信仰、多饮食习惯的大杂烩军队的需要。

24种不同口味具体菜单请参考如下:

CASE A MENU (1-24)

1-Chili with Beans 红辣椒豆

2-Chicken Fajitas 墨西哥鸡肉饭

3-Chicken with Noodles 鸡面

4-Pork Sausage w/Gravy 猪肉香肠/肉汁

5-Mediterranean Chicken 地中海鸡肉

6-Beef Roast w/Vegetables 墨西哥牛肉卷饼

7-Beef Brisket 牛腩

8-Meatballs with Marinara Sauce 用蕃茄酱肉丸

9-Beef Stew 红烩牛肉

10-Chili & Macaroni 辣椒和通心粉

11-Vegetable Lasagna 蔬菜烤宽面条

12-Spicy Penne Pasta 香辣彭内面食

13-Cheese Tortellini 芝士饺子

14-Ratatouille 蔬菜杂烩

15-Mexican Style Chicken Stew 墨西哥式炖鸡肉

16-Pork Rib 排骨

17-Maple Sausage 枫糖香肠

18-Beef Ravioli 意式牛肉馄饨

19-Sloppy Joe 碎牛肉三明治 牛肉馅饼 墨西哥辣椒

20-Spaghetti with Meat Sauce 意大利肉酱面

21-Lemon Pepper Tuna 柠檬胡椒金枪鱼

22-Asian Beef Strips 亚洲牛带

23-Chicken Pesto Pasta 鸡肉意面

24-Southwest Beef & Black Beans 西南牛肉和黑豆

每一包完整的XMRE 1300XT包含:

一份8盎司的主菜

一份饼干或面包

2-3份点心/甜品/配餐

一份水果味饮料包

一份酱料/酱汁

一小包速溶咖啡

一个非乳奶精(咖啡伴侣)

一包一次性湿巾

勺子

餐巾

无焰加热器

所谓无焰加热是利用金属氧化来产生热量,只要少量水就能使之达到沸点,蒸汽很快可以加热口粮

作者  | 2014-9-22 21:43:05 | 阅读(27) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

python: Tk 对比 config() 与 [] =

2014-9-16 18:01:56 阅读37 评论0 162014/09 Sept16

from Tkinter import *

class Application(Frame):
    def say_hi(my_demo):
        print "hi there, everyone!"

    def createWidgets(my_demo):
        my_demo.close = Button(my_demo)
        my_demo.close.config(fg = "yellow", bg = "blue", text = "Quit", command  = my_demo.quit)
        my_demo.close.pack({"side": "left"})

        my_demo.hi_there = Button(my_demo)
        my_demo.hi_there["text"] = "Hello",
        my_demo.hi_there["command"] = my_demo.say_hi

        my_demo.hi_there.pack({"side": "left"})

    def __init__(my_demo, master=None):
        Frame.__init__(my_demo, master)
        my_demo.pack()
        my_demo.createWidgets()

root = Tk()
app = Application(master=root)
app.mainloop()
root.destroy()

作者  | 2014-9-16 18:01:56 | 阅读(37) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

C# How to change font size

2014-9-16 17:57:08 阅读20 评论0 162014/09 Sept16

       private void button_plus_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
           float smallfontsize ;
           string smallfontname; 
           smallfontsize = label1.Font.Size;
           smallfontname = label1.Font.Name;
           smallfontsize +=5;
           label1.Font = new Font(smallfontname, smallfontsize);

        }

        private void button_minus_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            float smallfontsize;
            string smallfontname;
            smallfontsize = label1.Font.Size;
            smallfontname = label1.Font.Name;
            smallfontsize -= 5;
            label1.Font = new Font(smallfontname, smallfontsize);
        }

作者  | 2014-9-16 17:57:08 | 阅读(20) |评论(0) | 阅读全文>>

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